PILOTTO, Camillo

پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398

PILOTTO , C amillo . - Actor, born in Rome on February 6, 1890, son of the author-actor Libero Pilotto. He began very young and was part of the most important companies of his time; but he revealed himself above all alongside Emma Gramatica, in whose company he held the roles of first actor and character, in which the latter is today held among the best.

The number of characters, especially modern ones, he interpreted is enormous, especially in the repertoire of Emma Gramatica (Ibsen, Shaw, Amiel, Géraldy, Schönherr, etc.). Among the most recent are his Creon in Antigone by G. Anouilh, the Father in the Six characters by L. Pirandello, Sganarelle in Don Giovanni di Molière.

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ABBA, Marta

پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398

ABBA , Marta . - Actress, born in Milan in 1903, studied acting at the Accademia dei filodrammatici in her city, and made her debut in one of the last companies directed by Virgilio Talli. In 1928, hired as the first actress of the Art Theater then founded by Luigi Pirandello in Rome, she revealed herself in Our Goddess of Bontempelli; followed by interpretations of Evreinov 's What Matters Most , and the Six Characters(shot) by Pirandello himself. The company then raised its tents from Rome, to travel for long years in Italy and abroad - France, Germany, England, South America - and Abba, who had become the poet's favorite disciple, to whom she kept filial devotion as long as he lived , was admired for his talents of vibrant drama, especially in the Pirandellian repertoire. In 1931-32 he played in Paris, in French and with French actors, the man , the beast and the virtue , by the same author. In 1933 she was the first actress of the company of the "Teatro Stabile" of San Remo, who also had a few months to live. Finally moved, in 1936, to New York, she interpreted in English, with an American company, Tovarischof Deval, reporting wide success in its replicas lasting over a year. Pirandello died on December 10, 1936, and in January 1938 Abba married Mr. Millikin, an industrialist from Cleveland; and, giving up the scenes, settled in California. She had also had success as an expressive and suggestive film actress, particularly in the film Teresa Confalonieri .

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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398

Summary cinema : 1. The new national schools of the 1960s. 2. The end ofHollywoodand the revival of American cinema. 3. European cinema of the last thirty years. 4. The cinema of non-European countries. 5. New criticism and new audience. □ Bibliography.

1. The new national schools of the sixties

After the great season of Italian neorealism and its influence, direct or indirect, on other cinemas - and after the resumption of world cinema during the fifties according to models and forms quite similar to those of the prewar classic cinema, especially in the United States, inFrance, in the Soviet Union - new ferments were felt at the end of the decade and in the early sixties in many European countries, in particular in France, which gave rise to new national film schools, less tied to tradition and open to a double experimentation, both on the level of contents as much as that of forms. In other words, a group of young filmmakers, trained in film libraries or through critical exercise in trendy newspapers and magazines (such as, for example, the 'Cahiers du cinéma "in France), somehow wanted to use the camera not just to make spectacular films, perhaps of considerable artistic level, but to talk about themselves, their generation and their existential problems, often outside of political and ideological references and influences. A reference to neorealism and to a certain minor American cinema, in the wake of a rediscovery of the role and function of the 'author', intended as the sole creator of the work, rather than as 'director', coordinator of the film show. In this sense considerable influence had, not only in France, the theoretical and critical lesson of André Bazin, as well as the so-calledpolitique des auteurs , aimed precisely at privileging, in the collective and collaborative work of film production, the director's position, considered to be the same as a writer, painter, poet or musician: that is, not only the artistic director of a film , but also and above all its creator, with its own poetics, its aesthetics, its Weltanschauung . Hence the use - sometimes abuse - of the expression ‛film writing 'in place of‛ direction'; hence also a filmic practice and a theoretical and critical reflection, in which the director's personality was highlighted, beyond the limits and conventions of current film production,
In the context of this new formal and hermeneutic perspective, in France, in the late 1950s, a fierce and increasingly numerous group of young directors was formed which radically renewed the French cinema of the time. Think of François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol, aJacques Rivette, to Eric Rohmer - all critics of the 'Cahiers du cinéma "-, ad Alain Resnaisand his 'cinema of memory', and many others. Everyone, inmeasuremore or less evident and coherent, interested in breaking the schemes of classic cinema, in referring both to their own personal experience and to the new forms of literature and visual arts: and this happened both by bringing characters, situations and environments to the screen that reflected directly or indirectly one's life, either by destructuring the story, breaking up the representation according to new formal rules, or rather inventing the rules necessary from time to time for the construction of a completely personal film. Hence, for example, the so-called 'cinema-essay', of which Godard was one of the most rigorous and consequent advocates, especially with his films of the late sixties - starting from La chinoise (1967) - and the following years ( Numéro deux, 1975; Passion , 1982; Nouvelle vague , 1990; Allemagne neuf zéro, 1991). It was a cinema that rejected history, in the traditional sense of the term, the story, the characters themselves, in favor of a perspective, multifaceted, controversial representation of facts and problems of contemporary society, inviting - or rather almost forcing - the viewer to take a stand, to react to images and words, involving him more on the level of reason than on that of feeling. A cinema, therefore, animated by a very different inspiration compared to that of a Truffaut, whose work moved on the side of a nuanced autobiographism and a use of the camera as a revelator of passions and feelings (the five films on Antoine Doinel , 1959-1979; La chambre verte, 1978), or of a Chabrol, more interested in the critical description of the petty bourgeois environment or in the analysis of pathological situations ( Le boucher , 1970; Masques , 1987; Une affaire de femmes , 1988), or of a Rohmer, delicate storyteller of young stories ( Ma nuit chez Maud , 1969; Pauline à la plage , 1983), or a Rivette, a brilliant manipulator of situations and behaviors ( L'amour fou , 1969; La belle noiseuse , 1991), or finally of a Resnais, an extraordinary investigator of the connections that bind the past to the present, an avid experimenter of new formal solutions ( L'année dernière à Marienbad , 1961;Providence, 1977; L'amour à mort , 1984).
Following the example of the French nouvelle vague - as the new school was named which, in addition to the directors mentioned, including dozens of other young beginners - many directors moved inGermany, in Great Britain, in Italy and in several socialist countries, from Poland to Hungary, from Czechoslovakiato the Soviet Union. To keep quiet from the turmoil of renewal that occurred, in those years, also in Latin America and in theFar East (see the many new, unconventional films made in Argentina, in Brazil, in Japan), and even in the United States, where, however, the revolutionary movement touched only marginally Hollywood, being confined mostly to the so-called New American cinema or underground cinema , whose circulation, in America and inEurope, did not touch the cinemas, but rather cultural circles, film clubs and universities. These new national schools naturally had different origins and developments from country to country, if only because these young authors were facing different economic, social, political and ideological situations. In Germany, for example, it was a question of rebuilding a cinematography that had given very few signs of vitality after the end of thesecond World War, in a country divided into two, with serious political and social problems. Hence the need to gather around the proponents of a new cinema, headed by the writer-directorAlexander Kluge( Der starke Ferdinand , Ferdinando il dura, 1976), a group of young people willing to use the camera as an instrument of knowledge and investigation of reality without too much regard for the conventions and respectability of German society, generally rather conservative and unwilling to question; and it is to these young people that we owe the so-called Junger deutscher Film . Directors likeWim Wenders( Falsche Bewegung , False movement, 1974; Im Lauf der Zeit , Over time, 1975),Werner Herzog( Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle , The enigma ofKaspar Hauser, 1974; Fitzcarraldo , 1982),Rainer Werner Fassbinder( Die Ehe der Maria Braun , Maria Braun's wedding, 1978; Querelle , 1982) were for years the most interesting and valid representatives of this school, which also introduced new formal models, original linguistic solutions, giving life to a fashion ‛cinephile 'which had numerous followers.
In Britain the situation was different, being the British cinema of the fifties thriving and full of prestigious films. But, as in France, it was a question of getting out of school, of abandoning the spectacular old clichés , of going down the streets and facing the problems of everyday life. Thus was born the movement that called itselffree cinemaand that precisely on the proprio freedom 'of action and language he built his artistic identity: a cinema free to choose new models, perhaps drawn from literature and theater, provided they are anchored in a critical and unprejudiced vision of reality, as the films showed by Karel Reitz ( Saturday night and sunday morning , 1961; Morgan, a suitable case for treatment , 1966),Lindsay Anderson( The sporting Life, 1963), Tony Richardson (Tom Jones, 1963), often taken from texts by John Osborne, Alan Sillitoe, Harold Pinter, Arnold Wesker. A national school that was exhausted in the space of not many years, but which also contributed to rejuvenating traditional cinema and to setting up that new language that would have been characteristic of cinema in the following decades.
In Italy, the film production was instead dominated by genre films, of great popular success, since the season of neorealism had gradually ended. It was therefore a matter of taking up that lesson of realism that the films of Rossellini, De Sica, Visconti had imparted, but of adapting it to the new historical-political situation, and above all of introducing elements of language that did not follow the traditional models. In this sense, think of the work ofMarco Bellocchio( Fists in the Pocket , 1965),Bernardo Bertolucci( The spider's strategy , 1970; Last tango in Paris , 1972),Marco Ferreri( The monkey woman , 1963; Dillinger died , 1969),Ermanno Olmi( Il posto , 1961; The tree of the clogs , 1977), the brothers Paolo and Vittorio Taviani ( San Michele had a rooster , 1971; Allonsanfàn , 1974), all very active also in the following decades; but think above all of the films ofPier Paolo Pasolini, which marked a fundamental stage in the history of poetry cinema, of a cinema, that is, refractory to traditional narration, open instead to the suggestions that a film language could offer, free to reinterpret reality in the ways and forms of a continuous invention aesthetics ( Accattone , 1961; Birds and birds , 1966; Salò or the 120 days ofSodom, 1975). In this respect - that is, the recovery of a personal style without neglecting the themes of contemporary life, with political and social reflections as well - Italian cinema, developed since the early 1960s, has joined those innovative national schools that already in France, Germany and Great Britain the linguistic problem of the radical overcoming both of traditional cinema and of that born from neorealism and from the ferment of novelties of the immediate post-war period had arisen.
In a partially similar situation, but substantially different due to the profound diversity of the political, economic and social structures of the respective countries, Polish, Hungarian, Soviet and Czechoslovak cinema, thanks also to the political and ideological crisis that went through those societies, at the end of the years fifties and early sixties seemed to place itself on a content and formal renewal plan that did not differ much from that of the national schools mentioned. A renewal that marked a clear break against the so-called socialist realism, which in those years still dominatedthe worldof art and literature from Eastern countries. It was a matter of rediscovering daily life with its problems and its contradictions, both individual and social; but it was also a question of renewing a cinematic language which had become sclerotic, linked as it was to the great models of classical Soviet cinema. In this direction, with results of undoubted value, directors like the Poles movedAndrzej Munk( Pasa ä erka , The Passenger, 1963),Andrzej Wajda( Niewinni czarodzieje , Ingenui perversi, 1960; Cz ù owiek z marmuru , The Marble Man, 1976),Roman Polanski( ä w wodzie , The knife in the water, 1962; Rosemary's baby , 1968, in the United States), Jerzy Skolimowski ( Rysopis , Particular signs: nobody, 1964; Success is the best revenge , 1984, in Great Britain) ; the Hungarians Miklós Jancsó ( Szegénylegények , The Desperate of Sándor, 1964; Csend és kiáltás , Silence and cry, 1968), István Gaál ( Magasiskola , The hawks, 1970), András Kovács ( Hideg napok , Cold days, 1966) ( Tuüzoltó utca 25 , Via dei Pompieri 25, 1973); the Soviets Andrej Tarkovskij (Ivanovodetstvo , Ivan's childhood, 1962; Andrei Rublev , 1966-1969), Andrei Mikhalkov-Koncalovskij ( Istorjia Asjej Klja is Inoj , Asja Kljacina History, 1966), Nikita Mikhalkov ( Neskol ' ko dnej iz ž izni II Oblomova , Oblomov, 1979), Sergej Paradzanov ( Legenda o Suramskoj kreposti , the legend of Suram fortress, 1985), Otar Iosseliani ( Ž the BCE is ij drozd , There once was a singing blackbird, 1973); the Czechoslovaks Věra Chytilová ( Sedmikrásky , Le margheritine, 1966), Miloš Forman ( Lásky jedné plavovlásky, The loves of a blonde, 1965), Jan Němec ( O slavnosti a hostech , The party and the guests, 1966),Evald Schorm( Ka ž d ý den odvahu , Daily courage, 1964), Jiří Menzel ( Ost ř e sledované vlaky , Strictly supervised trains, 1966). A large group of authors who managed, at least in the early days, to give us a genuine, problematic, new representation of their countries; but, in many cases, they were then forced to return to the ranks or to emigrate, imposing themselves however among the most significant and important directors of the following twenty years (think of Polanski, Skolimowski, Tarkovskij, Michalkov).
As has been said, also in Latin America and Japan these ferments of renewal manifested themselves in films of undoubted charm and great significance, not only aesthetic, but more properly political and ideological. Not so much perhaps the so-called Argentine school, whose best-known representative wasLeopoldo Torre Nilsson( Fin de fiesta , 1960), as much as a film like La hora de los hornos (1966-1968) by Octavio Getino and Fernando Solanas (very active also in the following decades); and above all the Brazilian Cinema nôvo with the 'revolutionary' works ofGlauber Rocha( Deus eo diabo na terra do sol , The black god and the blond devil, 1964),Ruy Guerra( Os fuzís , The rifles, 1964) and Carlos Diegues ( Bye bye Brasil , 1980). As for Japanese cinema, dominated by the films ofAkira Kurosawa, Kenji Mizoguchi, Yasujirō Ozu and other great directors, known and appreciated also and perhaps above all in the West, the ferment of novelties coincided with the political crisis of Japanese society fifteen years after the end of the war and the hecatomb of Hiroshima is Nagasaki: an identity crisis that young writers like Yukio Mishima, and filmmakers, like Nagisa Ōshima( Gishiki , The ceremony, 1971), were able to capture and represent in novels and films with a strong content and formal impact. Therefore also in the Far East and Latin America the artistic crisis that had affected the cinema in its linguistic (and partly productive) structures - and that in Europe had given rise to the flourishing of national schools that this crisis were able to overcome with excellent results only formal - it was resolved by drawing on that great repertoire of forms and styles that the cinema had elaborated in its history of over half a century, with a freedom of choice that can be summarized in Godard's statement, according to which all that is projected on the screen is cinema.

2. The end of Hollywood and the rebirth of American cinema

During the sixties, coinciding with the birth and affirmation, also internationally, of the various European national schools, there was a progressive weakening of Hollywood cinema, due to various causes, including the great and widespread diffusion of the television, some wrong commercial operations and the changing tastes of the young audience. Just the success of certain films of the nouvelle vague and of other European cinemas, with their free style, with their characters, environments and stories related to the world of young people, to their personal experience, to their daily myths and rituals, determined some failure of the American films, most of which are made according to somewhat obsolete patterns and models. Only at the end of the decade, with a film likeEasy rider (1969) byDennis HopperShot on the economy, outside the big production houses, the result of a sort of compromise between the traditional show and the revolution of underground cinema , there was a real recovery. That film, which became a sort of manifesto for the new generations and which well captured the restless and rebellious spirit of young people, not only Americans, in a period of reflux and new revolutionary ideals (we are in the years of the youth contest and the French May ), gave rise to a new production that was based, at least in part, on the European one.
Over the course of a decade, Hollywood cinema gradually abandoned its great spectacular tradition - which was still followed, albeit with remarkable and personal innovations, by great directors such asArthur Penn( Alice's restaurant , 1969),Sam Peckinpah( The wild bunch , 1969; Straw dogs , 1971),Robert Altman (Nashville, 1975; The player , 1992; Short cuts , 1993), or by a brilliant independent author likeRoger Corman( The wild angels , 1966) at whose school some of the young people of the 'new' Hollywood of the following decades were trained - to take a less linear path.
Linguistic innovations were combined with a great freedom in the choice of themes and subjects to be treated; unconventional characters were outlined within environments taken from everyday life or distorted by a fantasy that mixed reality and desire, dreams and evencriticismsocial. Cinema became the place of contradictions, the mirror of a society and a world - that of youth - which manifested themselves through individual and collective paths that were always different, certainly not linear. Thus, spectacular new trends arose, together with a progressive transformation of the production organization in Hollywood, no longer concentrated in the big ‛historical 'houses, but divided into a series of smaller, isolated, independent projects, or in a different production structure, which it took into account the changes in the tastes of the public, or rather the differences between the spectators, no longer endorsed in a single undifferentiated generic "public", but bearers of sectoral requests and expectations. Thus,studio system and star system , that is, the supporting structures of the Hollywood production of the previous decades, to venture on roads that would have led to a general reformulation of the film models.
On this road he moved, among the first,John Cassavetes, close to the artists of the New American cinema , but later the author of numerous films that originally combined the needs of the show with the needs of individual artistic expression: films often built on few characters and a lot of improvisation, with a free style that put them in light the most genuine and truthful aspects ( Husbands , 1970; A woman under the influence , 1974). A director like was inspired in many ways by CassavetesMartin Scorsese, who in a few years became the most significant author of the new American cinema, being some of his films become cult movies , with all the consequences of the case in terms of cinephilia and popular success ( Mean streets , 1973; Taxi driver , 1976 ; Goodfellas , 1990). As part of this new production, free from previous influences and open to the most diverse suggestions of the moment, many other young directors have moved, such asFrancis Ford Coppola( Apocalypse now , 1979, the triptych of The godfather , 1971-1990),Brian De Palma( Dressed to kill , 1980; The untouchables , 1989),Michael Cimino( The deer hunter , 1978; Heaven's gate , 1980),Lawrence Kasdan( The big chill , 1984),George Lucas( American graffiti , 1973; Star wars , 1977),Steven Spielberg( Duel , 1971; Close encounters of the third kind , 1977, Raiders of the lost ark , 1981; Jurassic park , 1993), and also - on the side of a genre cinema, especially horror and science fiction - interesting directors such asJohn Carpenter( Escape fromNew York, 1981), Ridley Scott( Blade runner , 1982) oJonathan Demme( The silence of the lambs , 1991). But certainly, together with Scorsese, the author who best represented the novelty and ferment of American cinema of the last twenty years is David Lynch, in whose work, differently accepted by the public and critics, there is an ‛apocalyptic 'vision of society and of man, seen and represented as negative models of a corrupt and corrupting world, in which the individual seems to get lost without finding points of reference or ways out ( Blue velvet , 1986; Wild at heart , 1990).
In this climate of uncertainty, often of fear, sometimes of unease, young directors have become interpreters in more recent years asAbel Ferrara( Bad lieutenant , 1992),Jim Jarmush( Stranger than paradise , 1984),Spike Lee( Do the right thing , 1989), the brothers Joe and Ethan Coen ( Barton Fink , 1991) and above allQuentin Tarantino, who became a cult author with Pulp fiction (1994), a model of a new violent and aggressive cinema, but also permeated with self-irony and sarcasm. And with self-irony, humor, sometimes with declared comedy, the American cinematography of the last thirty years has not been without, on the contrary, it has obtained original results, sometimes even ingenious, as evidenced by the traditional Jewish films made by authors-actors such asMel Brooks( Frankenstein junior , 1975), Gene Wilder, Marty Feldman and above allWoody Allen, one of the most subtle investigators of American customs and mentality, especially New Yorkers ( Annie Hall , 1977;Manhattan, 1979; Crimes and misdemeanours , 1989).
Outside of these tendencies, both comic and dramatic, indeed outside of American film production, as closed in total isolation, in a sort of voluntary exile, is the complex and difficult to catalog work ofStanley Kubrick, author, in the seventies and eighties, of memorable films such as 2001: a space odyssey (1968), A clockwork orange (1971), Barry Lyndon (1975), The shining (1980), Full metal jacket(1987): different chapters of a large fresco on violence in contemporary society and its consequences on the life of individuals. Within the Hollywood system, albeit renewed in content and shapes, in the redefinition of cinematographic genres and in a more flexible and open production structure, there are instead many films that have been made according to spectacular principles that do not differ much from old models, or with the new technologies through which very suggestive and successful success special effects can be obtained. Hence the multiplication of films built with openly commercial intent, with large technical and financial means, with an extraordinary expenditure of productive forces: films that have placed themselves, especially during the nineties, at the top of the world cinema market, contributing not a little, with their massive and widespread presence, to the weakening of other European and non-European cinemas. So much so that, in an all-encompassing perspective that takes account of developments and variations in the path, there is the risk, in this part of the millennium, of seeing Hollywood not only as a symbol and emblem of cinematout court , but also as absolute ruler of world cinema.

3. European cinema in the last thirty years

The transformations that Hollywood cinema has produced in the film market and its international success, especially among young audiences, have not, however, prevented European cinema in the last thirty years from continuing on the path taken at the end in the 1950s and early 1960s, when, as has been said, the new national schools were born and developed. Of course, the financial difficulties, a widespread production disorganization, the competition of Hollywood cinema and television, the economic and social crisis that hit the Eastern European countries in particular, the fall of the wall ofBerlin, with the consequence of a different political structure of that area and the end of ideologies, did not favor that path, on the contrary they hindered it. In some cases there was even a very strong drop in production, almost the disappearance of this or that cinematography; in other cases old arrangements were changed or models and functions were transformed; in still others, finally, they remained at the previous stage, contenting themselves with administering a consolidated artistic heritage, with little or no innovation.
In some respects this was the situation of French cinema after the great season of the nouvelle vague, at least in the sense that the most significant directors of the last thirty years still remain Godard, Chabrol, Rohmer, Rivette, Resnais, Truffaut (died in 1984). There is no doubt, in fact, that some of their films, such as Godard's Hélas pour moi (1993), Chabrol's La cérémonie (1995), Rohmer's various Contes (1990-1996), Jeanne la Pucelle (part I and II , 1992-1993) by Rivette, Smoking / No smoking (1994) by Resnais, are among the most interesting works of recent years. However, alongside these masters, a new trend in French cinema has developed, if not a real school, which has been able to pick up and update some of the motifs and themes of thenouvelle vague , introducing the ferments, expectations, fears, desires, anxieties of the new generations. Think of directors likeLuc Besson( Subway , 1985),Jacques Doillon( Le petit criminel , 1990), Cyril Collard ( Les nuits fauves , 1992), Léos Carax ( Les amants du Pont Neuf , 1991) and many others, more or less interested in the strong and unsweetened representation of contemporary reality, perhaps through an original use of metaphor, a composite style, unusual characters and environments. A cinema to a large extent innovative, even if not always up to its intentions, more or less declared, or closed within a little dated content and formal schemes.
In this respect, which equally affects the language and the topics addressed, English and Irish cinema seemed more lively and dynamic, which on the one hand referred to the lesson of free cinema- with particular attention to social issues, the world of work, the difficulties of everyday life - and on the other hand it has opened up to a series of experiments in the various fields of entertainment, with original film solutions. In this latter area, a prominent place belongs to two artists likePeter Greenaway, author, among other things, of Thecook, the thief, his wife and her lover (1989) and Prospero's books (1991), eDerek Jarman, to whom Edward II (1991) and Wittgenstein (1993) are responsible : brilliant and provocative directors of the image and the environments, outside the usual patterns of the show, careful to rediscover all the fascinating possibilities of the screen, used as a reflective mirror of fantasy. In this sense they seemed far more interesting than a director-actor likeKenneth Branagh, updated but superficial cinematographic interpreter of Shakespeare's theater. Instead in the context of a 'social' cinema, attentive to the concrete problems of contemporary Britain or Ireland, they have distinguished themselves above allStephen Frears( The snapper , 1993), Kenneth Loach ( Raining stones , 1993),Mike Leigh( High hopes , 1988) and, secluded in his private and largely autobiographical world, Terence Davis ( Distant voices, still lives , 1988).
As for Germany, the innovative thrust of the Junger deutscher Film having ended , only Fassbinder (died in 1982), Herzog and Wenders dominated German cinema for a long period, with a success by critics and international audiences. Just think of Berlin Alexanderplatz (1980) of the former, Cobra verde (1988) of the latter, and above all of the overall work of the third - Paris,Texas (1984), Der Himmel über Berlin (The sky above Berlin, 1987), Bis ans Ende der Welt (Until the end of the world, 1991), In weiter Ferne, so nah! (So ​​far, so close, 1993) - which has become, for the young critics and the cinephile audience, a sort of model of contemporary cinema. The presence of these authors has overshadowed a film production which, despite the economic difficulties and disaffection of the spectators, has nevertheless maintained a certain quality level, thanks to the contribution of directors such asEdgar Reitz( Heimat , 1980-1984) and Werner Schroeter ( Malina , 1991), in addition to the aristocratic, experimental and elitist work of Hans Jürgen Syberberg ( Hitler, ein Film aus Deutschland , 1977). Nor has the unification of the two Germanies, after the collapse of the Berlin wall in 1989, marked a productive recovery or a diversification of the film production, which, in fact, has become increasingly flattened on spectacularly traditional models and schemes without real expressive needs .
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, this situation also dominated Italian cinema, limited - with few exceptions - in the field of popular entertainment, black comedy or vulgar drama, however, obtaining great success with the public, at least in certain cases.
But there were precisely the exceptions, represented by the works of directors who had made their debut in the early sixties and who continued their personal journey in the following decades, a little on the margins of the market, with certainly positive results. Ferreri, for example, with his nonconformist, provocative, aggressive cinema ( La grande abbuffata , 1973; I love you , 1986); the Taviani brothers, with their refined and intellectually stimulating films ( Padre padrone , 1977; Fiorile , 1993); Olmi, with his delicate and profound gaze ( Long life to the lady , 1987); Bertolucci, with the grandeur of his ‛international cinema '( Novecento , 1976; The last emperor, 1987; SmallBuddha, 1993); and then Bellocchio ( The eyes, the mouth , 1982),Ettore Scola( The family , 1986),Liliana Cavani( The night porter , 1974) and others. To these it is necessary to add the name of Sergio Leone, considered the master of the western Italian style, brilliant craftsman of the popular show ( For a fistful of dollars , 1965; Once upon a time in America , 1984). These authors were then joined by others no less interesting, such asPupi Avati, Gabriele Salvatores, Giuseppe Tornatore and especially Gianni Amelio( The child thief , 1992),Sergio Citti( I magi stray , 1996), Franco Piavoli ( Voices in time , 1996) and the one who is considered, even outside Italy, the best representative of Italian cinema of the nineties,Nanni Moretti( Palombella rossa , 1989; Dear diary , 1993). Directors who have opposed the fierce competition of American cinema with a bulwark made of intelligent and personal films, but who nevertheless remained on the margins of the market for a series of reasons equally attributable to the distribution and the cinematographic exercise, dominated by the products of 'across the ocean (as indeed happens in most European and non-European countries).
Outside of what we can still consider as the great European cinemas - the French, the English, the German and the Italian - there has been, over the past thirty years, a certain recovery of production in marginal areas, like Spain or Portugal, however, in the face of a significant drop in production in the countries of Northern Europe and the very serious crisis that hit the countries of Eastern Europe after the end of communism and the consequent political and social transformations. The renewal drive that had characterized those films in the early sixties had been running out for several years. But during the nineties, despite considerable difficulties, both economic as well as political and social, the recovery, especially in what was the Soviet Union, it seemed to assume significant proportions, through the development of certain elements of novelty that had already appeared in the previous decade, during the Gorbachev era. Think in particular of Sergei Bodrov (SER-Svoboda eto raj , Freedom is paradise, 1989), to Vitalij Kanevskij ( Samostojatelnaja ž izn' , An independent life, 1991), to Pavel Lounguine ( Taxi blues , 1990), to Aleksandr Sokurov ( Moskovskaja elegija , 1987), to the Lithuanian Šarunas Bartas ( Few of us , Far from God and men, 1996). In what was thereYugoslavia the most prominent name is certainly that of Emir Kusturica( Underground , 1995); while in Poland the author who brought that cinematography back to a very high artistic level, with a series of films of extraordinary content and formal appeal isKrzysztof Kieslowski( Dekalog , The Decalogue, 1987-1989; the triptych Trois couleurs , shot in France: Bleu , 1993; Blanc , 1994; Rouge , 1994). Finally, as regards Spain and Portugal, after the end of Franco and Salazar's dictatorships and the advent of democratic governments, cinema has resumed its path, with results that are captivating or disappointing, original or traditional from time to time , however, demonstrating a ferment of novelties and a certainly interesting industriousness. In Spain the author who made the most talk about himself for the aggressiveness of his films, the nonconformity of the themes, the freedom of style, is Pedro Almodóvar ( La ley del deseo , 1987; Carne trémula, 1997), who has been able to give us a provocative portrait of contemporary Spanish society through strongly metaphorical stories and characters. But also Juan José Bigas Luna, Montxo Armendariz and others have achieved good critical and public success, for their personal way of portraying the vices and virtues of the Spanish people. As for Portugal, where a new national school has developed with the films of Joâo Botelho, Teresa Villaverde or the older Paulo Rocha, the director who has maintained the primacy for decades for the originality of his style, the depth of the themes treated, the subtle and melancholic poetry emanating from his characters and from the environments in which he falls them, is Manuel de Oliveira, author of many ineffable films, including O passado eo presente (1971), Francisca(1981), A divina comèdia (1991), Vale Abraâo (1993).
Finally, for their originality and uniqueness in the panorama of European cinema, the works of the Greek Theo Angelopulos ( O thiasos , La recita, 1975; Topio stin omihli , Landscape in the fog, 1988; To vlemma tou Odysseu , The look of Ulysses, 1995), by Finnish Aki Kaurismäki ( Tulitikkutehtaan tyttö , La Fiammiferaia , 1989; La vie de bohème , 1991; Kaus pilvet karkaavat , Nuvole in viaggio, 1997), by the Danish Lars von Trier ( Europe , 1991; Breaking the waves , 1996).

4.The cinema of non-European countries

While in Europe the various national cinemas were forced to reorganize in the face of the massive competition from American cinema and television, with results that were not always convincing and amid many economic and financial difficulties, outside Europe, in Asia, in Africa, inOceania, productions of various kinds and success were born and developed, including internationally, which, although unable to oppose Hollywood, conquered their own autonomous space. They were films and authors who managed to represent in an original and authentic way certain fundamental characters of their respective societies and cultures, to grasp their mentality, customs and ideology. Films and authors very different from each other, as different were the countries of origin, but united in their position outside the western tradition, both American and European. In the Far East, for example, they established themselves in the so-called ‛three Cine '- of Beijing, byTaipei and of Hong Kong- three different film schools that established themselves, especially in the eighties and nineties, on the world market. In the People's Republic of China, after the death of Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) and the progressive political transformation, the directors of what were called the fourth and fifth generations formed a fairly homogeneous group of authors, interested in retracing the recent history of China with disenchanted and critical eyes. Chen Kaigehe made his debut in 1984 with Huang tudi (yellow earth), which was followed by some films of considerable artistic and political value ( Haizi wang , The king of children, 1988; Bawang bieji , Farewell my concubine, 1993);Zhang Yimouhe made his debut in 1987 with Hong gaoliang (red Sorghum) and established himself all over the world with Dahong denglong gaogao gua (Red Lanterns, 1991) and Huozhe (Vivere !, 1994); other younger directors followed the same path, asTianZhuangzhuang or Liu Miaomiao. TOtaiwan, next to Edward Yang, Tsai Ming-liang o Ang Lee(known for the films shot in the United States, The wedding banquet , 1993; Eat drink man woman , 1994), the most prestigious name is certainly that of Hou Xiaoxian, subtly disturbing and stylistically rigorous author of Niluohe nüer (The daughter of theNile, 1987) and Beiqing chengshi ( Mourning city, 1989). Finally, in Hong Kong, in addition to the personal and intimate films of Ann Hui, Allen Fong, Clara Law, the overall work of Tsui Hark, director of imaginative and overwhelming films (such as Dao ma dan , or Peking opera blues) , 1986; the four episodes of Once upon a time in China , 1991-1994), and the most recent one ofJohn Woo( Hard boiled , 1992; Hard target , 1993), which have influenced American violent cinema or special effects; and more recently that of Wong Kar-Wai (Chongqingsenlin , Hong-Kong Express, 1994; Duoluo tianshi , Lost Angels, 1995; Cheun gwon tsa sit , Happy together, 1997).
In Japan, in addition to the great masters of the past still active, such as Kurosawa ( Kagemusha , 1980; Ran , 1985; Konna yume wo mita , Sogni, 1990; Hachigatsu no rapusodi , Rhapsody in August, 1991) or Shōhei Imamura ( Unagi, L ' anguilla, 1996), some young directors, the best of which is certainlyTakeshi Kitano( Sonatine , 1993; Hana-bi , 1997), have created a real national film school, which is imposing itself above all abroad for its own originality of forms and contents. And new directors have also established themselves in Korea, the Philippines or India, after the great season of the fifties and following, dominated by the figure ofSatyajit Ray( Shatrani ke khilari , Chess players, 1977; Ganashatru , An enemy of the people, 1988).
In Africa, alongside the Egyptian production, known in the West for the work of Yusuf Shahin (Yussef Chahine) ( El massir , Il destino, 1997), or that of Algeria and other Arab countries, sometimes present in international festivals, during the seventies and eighties, a production involving the French-speaking and English-speaking countries born on the rubble of the colonial empires was developing, following the example of some directors who had previously made their films with great courage and independence, like the Senegalese Ousmane Sembène, author, among other things, of La noire de ... (1966) andCamp de Thiaroye (1987). Souleymane Cissé has established himself in Mali ( Finyé , Il vento, 1982; Yeelen , 1987); in Ivory Coast, Désiré Ecaré ( Visages de femmes , 1985); inBurkina Faso, Gaston Kaboré ( Wênd kûuni , 1982; Zan boko , 1988) andIdrissa Ouedraogo( Yaaba , 1989; Tilai , 1990): directors who have been able to grasp social transformations and the contrasts between tradition and modernity in their countries with great psychological subtlety, sometimes with humor.
But the non-European cinema that has most demonstrated its originality in the last decade, that is, in years in which, in Asia as in Africa, the other cinemas have marked the step with the risk of a serious artistic and economic involution, is the Iranian one, despite the internal political and social situation, after the Islamic revolution of 1979, it is not favorable to the free circulation of ideas. Among the new authors, alongside Rakhshan Bani-Etemad eaMohsen Makhmalbaf, has imposed itself internationally Abbas Kiarostami, extraordinary investigator of the spirit of his own people and fascinating descriptor of environments and atmospheres ( Kh ā ne-i dust kogi ā st?, Where is my friend's house ?, 1987; Nem ā -ye nazd ī k , Close up, 1990; Zendeg ī and ā meh d ā rad , E vita continua, 1992; Z ī r i darakht ā n-i zayt ū n , Under the olive trees, 1994).
On a different cultural side, steeped in western culture and more tied to the forms of the usual cinematographic show, with a tradition behind it that, in some cases, dates back to the 1930s and before that, cinema in Latin America, in Canada, in Australia and in New Zelandin recent years it has given quite a few signs of life, placing itself on the one hand in opposition to Hollywood, but, on the other, accepting certain models and formulas. Think of the Australian filmsPeter Weir( The last wave , 1977; Witness , 1985), but above all to those of the New ZealandJane Campion, who quickly became one of the leading directors of the new world cinema ( An angel at my table , 1990; The piano , 1993; Portrait of a lady , 1996). Think also of the CanadiansDavid Cronenberg is Atom Egoyan: the first, disturbing author of films immersed in murky or sick atmospheres ( Dead ringers , 1988; Naked lunch , 1991; Crash , 1996); the second, ingenious author of extravagant or dramatically complex films ( Exotica , 1994; The sweet hereafter, 1997). As for Latin America, after the season of the Argentine and Brazilian national schools in the 1960s, and of some interesting attempts at independent production in other countries, especially in Cuba, there has been a long stagnation, due to multiple factors, both political both economic, persisting the massive competition of Hollywood cinema and going through some of those countries, serious and dramatic political crises. More recently some signs of recovery have been felt, which however have not reached world markets and which do not yet seem so solid as to herald the birth of new national schools. Rather one should speak of individual personalities of directors who, sometimes at home, more often in exile, have continued their artistic and ideological discourse, most often in conflict with their governments or criticizing the widespread mentality or reactionary politics. For example the Bolivian Jorge Sanjinés Aramayo (Yawar mallku , Condor blood, 1969; La noche deSan Juan, 1971); the ChileansMiguel Littinand Raúl Ruiz, the first author of La tierra prometida (1973) and Los náufragos (1994), the second of a large number of films made in different countries ( Palomita blanca , 1973; L'île au trésor , 1986). Especially the MexicanArturoRipstein, whose work seems to refer to Buñuel, of which he was a friend, but also to certain Mexican cinema of the 1940s and 1950s, for his declared taste for melodramatic stories and sordid environments ( El castillo de la pureza , 1972; La reina de la noche , 1994; Profundo carmesí , 1996).
These are different and perhaps contradictory aspects of a way of making cinema that only marginally falls within the classical schemes of European and American production, preferring, in the best of cases, its own autonomous way, through which it is possible to manifest the cultural tradition, the customs social, political transformations of each individual country, and even more its own world view, not always coincident, in fact most of the times divergent from the usual one. In other words, it is what we can call a new film school, which crosses all the cinemas of non-European countries and proposes new models and new contents.

5. New criticism and new audience

The panorama of the last thirty years of world cinema would not be complete if we did not even mention the significant transformations that cinema theory and criticism have undergone, as the individual film schools proposed new spectacular schemes or subverted traditional ones; and also to the sensitive modifications, at times to radical changes, of the cinematographic public, no longer identifiable as a unitary whole, but divided and even dispersed in multiple streams. On the one hand, film criticism, and subsequently theory, found itself faced with new spectacular models, with a cinema that rejected old rules, schemes, models, gradually deconstructing traditional film narrative and dramaturgy classic, that neo-realism had only partially cracked; on the other, the public began to make individual and collective choices that corresponded less and less to the usual canons, favoring each time this or that genre or sub-genre of cinema, which moreover the new cinema was corroding from within, mixing the peculiar characters of each spectacular genre, introducing variants and modifications, creating new models. Furthermore, the widespread diffusion of television in every social stratum and the consequent crisis of neighborhood and suburban cinemas in large cities or those of provincial towns and villages, which year after year lost the usual popular public, not only have greatly reduced the number of spectators, but their characteristics have changed: no longer generic, anonymous, interchangeable spectators, but above all young, motivated, with different tastes, curious and intolerant. Hence a diversified film production, which wanted to address differentiated audiences, with a prevalence of youth; hence also a radical modification of the rooms themselves, which had to take this diversification into account, reducing the size and creating a multiplicity of screens, according to the needs and tastes of the spectators.
On the level of criticism and theory, a myriad of new youth magazines were born and developed during the sixties and following, which gave life to what has been called "cinephilia", or a love for cinema in unique, exclusive sense, including the entire film production as a universe in itself, a meeting point and synthesis of the most varied existential and cultural experiences. Consequently, even the criticism has gradually turned towards a hermeneutic practice that privileged personal discourse, individual taste, perhaps referring to ideological or political assumptions reinterpreted in a subjective or group key. This especially after the youth protest of 1968 and the widespread politicization of culture. As for theory,
Precisely referring to de Saussure's general linguistics and the consequent semiotic theory that has spread in the field of literature, especially in France, but also in Italy, the United States, Great Britain and elsewhere, some scholars have created a real semiotics of cinema, which analyzed the mechanisms of production of meaning characteristic of film language. In this field of research, and in parallel sectors, they have established themselves in the international fieldChristian Metz (who filmed and developed previous formulations by Jean Mitry), Raymond Bellour, Gianfranco Bettetini, David Bordwell, Francesco Casetti, Seymour Chatman, Gilles Deleuze, François Jost, Juri Lotman, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Marie-Claire Ropars and others, whose works have contributed significantly to resume and develop the theoretical discourse on film language, with the aim of grasping its peculiarities from within, through timely analysis of the constituent elements and relations with the spectator. From this point of view, beyond the controversies and discussions that animated the theoretical debate, especially in the sixties and seventies, there is no doubt that the semiotics of cinema and the studies that directly or indirectly refer to it ( or who contest it), have contributed to a clearer and more rigorous definition of the research field, with not negligible influences on film criticism and its practice. Which she criticizes, as well as in magazines, in periodicals, in newspapers, over the last decade, it has also spread through television channels, film festivals, monographic or retrospective reviews, that is, the places of a different consumption of cinema, more suitable for deepening the forms and contents of the show. Within this horizon of new cognitive and popular possibilities, the diffusion of videotapes has also contributed to a general re-examination of cinema as art, and to a sort of rewriting of the history of cinema on the basis of a direct knowledge of the works of the near and remote past. more suitable for deepening the forms and contents of the show. Within this horizon of new cognitive and popular possibilities, the diffusion of videotapes has also contributed to a general re-examination of cinema as art, and to a sort of rewriting of the history of cinema on the basis of a direct knowledge of the works of the near and remote past. more suitable for deepening the forms and contents of the show. Within this horizon of new cognitive and popular possibilities, the diffusion of videotapes has also contributed to a general re-examination of cinema as art, and to a sort of rewriting of the history of cinema on the basis of a direct knowledge of the works of the near and remote past.
This knowledge - and in some ways this flattening of the reception of films in a contemporary consumption that favors synchrony over diachrony, with the consequence of a historically incorrect vision - has called into question the very nature of the film show, less and less occasional or linked the uniqueness of the representation and increasingly conditioned by precise individual or group choices. The result is a fruitful situation that does not differ much from that of traditional arts, with the possibility for the viewer to see or review entire films or parts of them, behaving like the book reader, the listener, the visitor of galleries and museums. In fact, the widespread use of videotapes, even in the university environment, made it possible to consider the film product as a work in itself, collectable and catalogable according to criteria substantially analogous to those relating to the products of music, literature, visual arts. A cataloging which in fact means the creation of a repertoire of works, which can be drawn upon at any time; and, consequently, an individual relationship with cinema which, on closer inspection, differs considerably from the usual relationship established in cinemas, by their nature places of collective reception.
These gradual modifications of cinema as a spectacle and of the public as a spectator, during the 1980s and 1990s, contributed to modify, at least in part, the cinematographic language itself. In the sense that, by addressing sectoral audiences or even individual spectators, it was possible to significantly expand the range of technical and aesthetic possibilities. The subdivisions between genres and subgenres, fictional cinema and documentary cinema, popular entertainment and formal experimentation - which for many decades had been the cornerstone of a theory and history of cinema by categories, schools, periods, etc. - have gradually lost their meaning, in the general tendency to transform the cinematographic language into an all-inclusive language, suitable for the most diverse information and expressive needs, and taking for granted the presence of different audiences, made up of spectators who, even individually, could make their choices. Therefore, despite the crisis that the world cinema market has been going through for a few years, which can be seen in the closure of many cinemas and therefore in the disaffection of traditional viewers, paradoxically we are witnessing a sort of multiplication of the opportunities offered to watch films, often by means of new distribution channels, such as festivals and video tapes. This increase in production and consumption is part of the wider field of the so-called 'free time', in which contemporary life, at least in the West, has been articulated. A time dedicated to fun, culture, travel, other non-working activities, in which cinema is placed with its own specificity. And it is this specificity, within the composite and very vast world of vision, which in recent decades has been enriched with multiple technical means and new technologies, allowing the cinema, at the end of its first century of life, to maintain a position important. Also because, if we refer to the etymology of the word "cinema" (movement writing), there is no doubt that all forms and techniques of shooting, projection or creation of the self-propelled image - through television, the allowing the cinema, at the end of its first century of life, to maintain a prominent position. Also because, if we refer to the etymology of the word "cinema" (movement writing), there is no doubt that all forms and techniques of shooting, projection or creation of the self-propelled image - through television, the allowing the cinema, at the end of its first century of life, to maintain a prominent position. Also because, if we refer to the etymology of the word "cinema" (movement writing), there is no doubt that all forms and techniques of shooting, projection or creation of the self-propelled image - through television, thecomputer and any other possible iconographic machine - they can only refer to the invention of the Lumière brothers, correctly understood as the point of arrival of a scientific and technical research that has developed over the previous centuries. A research that has produced, in the twentieth century, what has been called the civilization of the image, of which cinema is certainly the main structure.
In this respect, it can be said that cinema, at the threshold of the 21st century, continues to be one of the most cultural, aesthetic and social phenomena of the multimedia civilization. The different technical, productive and popular areas in which the self-propelled image finds its application today allow us to consider strictly cinematographic production as an important but not exclusive part of the iconic universe that surrounds us. Therefore, talking about cinema of the last thirty years, noting the most important results or the most significant trends, only means giving some information that must be continuously updated and above all compared with what has been and is being done in the areas that have been mentioned. Only bearing in mind the reference
framework in its entirety,


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King Kong1

پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398

King Kong Giant monkey, frightening in appearance but human in feelings; she entered the collective imagination with the 1933 film of the same name directed by MC Cooper (1893-1973) and EB Schoedsack (1893-1979). Two well-known remakes came out of KK : in 1976, by J. Guillermin (n. 1925), and in 2005, by P. Jackson (n. 1961).

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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398


With the term McCarthyism, sometimes replaced by the phrase 'witch hunt' for the evident references to the psychosis that had shaken Puritan America a few centuries earlier (see the play The crucible by playwright Arthur Miller, that of the m. was one of the most illustrious victims), refers to the anti-communist crusade unleashed in the United States in the early 1950s - with devastating effects also in the world of cinema - by the republican senator Joseph R. McCarthy (1909-1957). McCarthy's personality and work have been and continue to be the object of opposing evaluations at home, from the apology of his former assistant RM Cohn, who called him "brave man who had fought a huge evil" admitting that "he could, at maximum, to have been wrong in some details "(1968, p. 279), to the severe judgment of those who, like FJ Cook, considered him the main responsible for the spread of a dangerous paranoia, for which" the largest country in the world wasted his energies looking for communists hidden under every bed " and "millions of Americans looked fearful behind them, fearing that sooner or later it would be up to them to defend themselves against who knows what in front of threatening inquisitors" (1971, p. 3). Supported by the extreme fringes of his party and, for all his campaigns, by the high spheres of the American Catholic Church (Crosby 1978), McCarthy suffered a rapid and ignominious collapse when - just as he was trying to extend the search for traitors and spies inside of far stronger and more solid institutions in Hollywood, such as the government radio station Voice of America, the libraries of the USIS (United States Information Service) spread across Europe and the country's army itself - his assistant Cohn lobbied the military for obtaining rainfall licenses and favorable conditions for his young collaborator, D. Schine. A formal complaint against McCarthy followed in the Senate, which was opposed only by a small group of twenty-two senators headed by B. Goldwater; R. Nixon himself, his collaborator and supporter, distanced himself from it, praising his "patriotism in the fight against communism" in a speech released by the NBC and CBS television networks, while at the same time deploring their "use of questionable methods" ( Cook 1971, p. 475). The loss of power McCarthy survived only a little over two years, but the consequences of his work, especially towards many of its victims and especially in the field of cinema, they are difficult to quantify: broken or at best interrupted careers, unsigned or signed works by figureheads that only years later critics, scholars and heirs of the victims began to re-examine , returning them where possible to the legitimate authors. Indeed, McCarthy's work, which remains the questionable honor of having given the name to the whole phenomenon, is part of an American history page that began well before the relatively short period of his hegemony (1950-1954), as shown the existence of a House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), founded in 1938 by Texas Senator M. Dies, chaired since 1944 by Senator J. Rankin of Mississippi (as a declaredly anti-Semitic Dies) and since 1947 by J. Parnell Thomas, Republican of New Jersey; preceding the rise of McCarthy had also been the security measures adopted by the Truman administration since 1947 to avoid controversy and accusations of excessive 'left-wing' by the right, the case of A. Hiss (the Foreign Ministry official accused in 1948 to be a Soviet spy), the fiercely anti-communist film series that began in Hollywood in 1947 and the trial of the spouses J. and E. Rosenberg, which then ended with a death sentence in 1951. Close ties were evident since those years - long kept silent or underestimated even by the press and historians - between anti-communism and anti-Semitism, given that as early as November 1947, as reported by VS Navasky (1980, pp. 109 et seq.), Sidney Harmon, a Californian Jewish producer, pointed out to the president of the American Jewish Committee, also citing a testimony from director Billy Wilder, that the accusations against the 'communists' were ominously similar to those addressed by Hitler's Nazism to the Jews, and aimed precisely at targeting co-religionists active in the world of cinema (but the Chairman of the Committee, John B. Slawson, responded by inviting silence, for reasons of 'prudence'). In September 1947, however, an order from Senator Parnell Thomas ordered various more or less well-known figures in the world of American cinema, mostly of Jewish origin or religion, not to leave the country without the authorization of the committee of inquiry. ; and in the October of the same year, the committee chaired by Thomas (of which the future President of the United States Nixon was a member) began hearings aimed at discovering, and possibly eradicating, "subversive influences in the world of cinema", summoning forty-three witnesses, nineteen of whom (twelve screenwriters, five directors, a producer and an actor) contested the authority of the committee a priori and were therefore defined unfriendly witnesses, or 'unfriendly witnesses'. The hearings began at the top with the interrogation of two of the most important Hollywood producers, Jack L. Warner and summoning forty-three witnesses, nineteen of whom (twelve screenwriters, five directors, a producer and an actor) contested the authority of the committee a priori and were therefore defined unfriendly witnesses, or 'unfriendly witnesses'. The hearings began at the top with the interrogation of two of the most important Hollywood producers, Jack L. Warner and summoning forty-three witnesses, nineteen of whom (twelve screenwriters, five directors, a producer and an actor) contested the authority of the committee a priori and were therefore defined unfriendly witnesses, or 'unfriendly witnesses'. The hearings began at the top with the interrogation of two of the most important Hollywood producers, Jack L. Warner andLouis B. Mayer, both highly skilled in responding to accusations in part relating to two films, Michael Curtiz's Mission to Moscow and Gregory Ratoff's Song of Russia, produced by them in 1943 and accused of having spread a favorable image of the then Soviet ally; There is a rich documentation on the hearings of the committee, thanks also to a book by Gordon Kahn, Hollywood on trial, which appeared in the same 1948 (1972²) with a vibrant and courageous preface by Thomas Mann. Some depositions are fun to read: you can remember for example. the sly skill with which Gary Cooper, even if included among the 'friendlies', played the part of the fool and / or the forgetful one to mention no name (pp. 55-59), or that of Bertolt Brecht, who said nothing but he said it to be praised by investigators, who even cited it as an example (pp. 121-29); and the zeal of the writer Ayn Rand, who deplored Song of Russia, argued that it would be better to defeat Nazism without allying with the Soviets, could make you laugh, but also shiver, so much victory was inevitable anyway (pp. 31-33) , or that of Mrs. Lela Rogers, still outraged that her daughter Ginger had been forced to pronounce, in the Edward Dmytryk film Tender comrade (1943; We were so happy), the communist slogan "share and share alike", that is divide and divide in equal parts (pp. 43-45). In November, at the end of the hearings, ten of the 'unfriendly witnesses', guilty of not having collaborated with HUAC and of not having recognized their authority,Edward Dmytryk , screenwriter Alvah Bessie, Lester Cole, Ring Lardner Jr , John Howard Lawson , Albert Maltz, Samuel Ornitz, Dalton Trumboand producer Adrian Scott, famous at the time as 'the ten of Hollywood', for whose release personalities from the whole world were mobilized. The same book ends with almost triumphalistic notes, citing articles published in the "The New York Times" and in the "Los Angeles Times" (from which it emerged, among other things, that American public opinion was at least divided on the issue, with 47% of culprits against 39% of innocentists and 14% who refused to answer), the interpellations of various parliamentarians - including H. Gonahan, wife of actor Melvyn Douglas - who demanded the immediate dissolution of the HUAC, and solidarity messages from film personalities such as Gregory Peck, Fredric March, William Wyler, Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, John Huston, Gene Kelly, Judy Garland, Van Heflin, Paulette Goddard, Joseph Cotten, Margaret Sullavan, Burt Lancaster, Lucille Ball, Frank Sinatra, Edward G. Robinson, Robert Ryan and many others. In fact, persecutions and proscriptions had just begun: in a secret meeting at the Waldorf Astoria in New York (November 26, 1947) the association of the magnates of the film industry decided by majority, albeit with some hesitation on the part of LB Mayer, Samuel Goldwyn, Darryl F. Zanuck and Harry Cohn, to fire the ten convicts and to compile a real black list, destined to grow in a short time up to far exceed the quota of one hundred names, thanks also to the rise of McCarthy and to the climate of heated patriotism provoked by the Korean War. In a second round of HUAC investigations, which began in 1951,John Garfield , Gale Sondergaard, Howard Da Silva, directors such as John Berry, Joseph Losey , Bernard Vorhaus, Jules Dassin and Abraham Polonsky , famous writers such as A. Miller, Dashiell Hammett and Lillian Hellman , and again the writers Michael Wilson , Leonardo Bercovici , Walter Bernstein, Carl Foreman , Nedrick Young, Ben Maddow, Donald Ogden Stewart, Paul Jarrico, Waldo Salt; also in this group the majority of those affected were of Jewish origin and / or religion. Then came the terrible and pathetic moment of the collapses, of the reports, of the naming names: among those who decided to collaborate there was also one of the 'ten of Hollywood', the director E. Dmytryk, whose example was soon followed by connects Elia Kazan and actors known as Larry Parks, Sterling Hayden and Lee J. Cobb .

Difficult to assess how much this shameful page, which would have closed unofficially in 1957, with an Oscar for the best screenplay awarded, for the Irving Rapper film The brave one (1956; The biggest bullfight) , to a non-existent 'Robert Rich', and officially only in 1975, when the Oscar himself was withdrawn by the real author, D. Trumbo (but already in 1960 the director Otto Preminger had publicly declared that it was Trumbo himself the author of the screenplay of his Exodus); and it is difficult to reconstruct the filmography of directors and screenwriters who had decided to repair in Europe, or in Latin America. In some of the films made in those years in Hollywood, which apparently are genre films (think of a western like High noon, 1952, Noon of Fire, written by C. Foreman and directed by Fred Zinnemann, or in a detective film such as He ran all the way, 1951, I loved an outlaw, directed by J. Berry and starring John Garfield), is felt between the lines a sort of anguished and secret subtext, which alludes, beyond the story depicted, to other fears and other violence. Some of the main protagonists - especially among the victims - told their story: among them D. Trumbo (Additional dialogue: letters of Dalton Trumbo, 1970; trad. It. Letters from the cold war, 1977), L. Hellman (1976) , which alludes, beyond the story represented, to other fears and other violence. Some of the main protagonists - especially among the victims - told their story: among them D. Trumbo (Additional dialogue: letters of Dalton Trumbo, 1970; trad. It. Letters from the cold war, 1977), L. Hellman (1976) , which alludes, beyond the story represented, to other fears and other violence. Some of the main protagonists - especially among the victims - told their story: among them D. Trumbo (Additional dialogue: letters of Dalton Trumbo, 1970; trad. It. Letters from the Cold War, 1977), L. Hellman (1976) ,Howard Koch(1979), co-writer of Casablanca (1942) by Curtiz and writer of Letter from an unknown woman (1948; Letter from an unknown woman) by Max Ophuls, and subsequently W. Bernstein (1996); two historians, P. McGilligan and P. Buhle (1997), are responsible for a large volume of interviews with the main suspects. But there was no lack of rumors, and justifications, of those who had gone to the other side, confessing their faults and denouncing their companions: for example. Dmytryk, who in a disturbing book (1996) claims his reasons and complains of the isolation suffered following his capitulation; and another great director, Kazan, who in the autobiography (1988) describes in shiny and vibrant pages the first signs of the 'purges', when Cecil B. DeMille, Leo McCarey and other right-wing directors sought, at the moment without success, to wrest the director's guild from director Joseph L. Mankiewicz, and later the attacks on playwright A. Miller, as well as the painful decision to 'collaborate'; or the actor Marc Lawrence (1991), who recalls in a lighter tone his passing frequenting of leftist circles ("mostly to find you girls"), the confessions to the HUAC of having met five or six colleagues and colleagues already abundantly compromised, and the period of pleasant exile in a Rome now close to the years of the 'dolce vita'.

Finally, to remember that at m. and theatrical works have been dedicated to HUAC investigations, indirectly as in A. Miller's The Crucible (1953), and directly, as in M. Kemble's Names (1997), and in Are you now or have you ever been (1972) by E. Bentley, whose title derives from the formula with which investigators asked the defendants if they were or had ever been communists; as well as documentary films, such as Christopher Koch's Blacklist: Hollywood on trial (1955); real subject films, such as the popular and appreciated The front (1976; The figurehead) by Martin Ritt, written by the blacklisted W. Bernstein and starring, among others, by the blacklisted Zero Mostel and Guilty by suspicion (1991; offense) by Irwin Winkler with Robert De Niro; finally also TV series, such as Blacklist (1964), episode written by Ernest Kinoy and directed by Stuart Rosenberg of The defenders, a series focused on the story of a couple of lawyers, father and son (Edward G. Marshall and Robert Reed, the first of whom, interpreter on Broadway of the Miller Crucible, had been in turn included in the notorious 'black lists'). An examination of all these works, and also of others in which the theme is touched upon or addressed only indirectly, appears in the book written by B. Murphy (1999).


RM Cohn , McCarthy , New York 1968.

FJ Cook , The nightmare lapses: the life and times of senator Joe McCarthy , New York 1971.

L. Hellman , Scoundrel time , Boston 1976.

DF Crosby , God, Church and flag: senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the Catholic Church , 1950-57, Chapel Hill 1978.

H. Koch , As time goes by: memoirs of a writer , New York 1979.

VS Navasky , Naming names , New York 1980.

E. Kazan , A life , New York 1988.

M. Lawrence , Long time no see: confessions of a Hollywood gangster , Palm Springs 1991.

W. Bernstein , Inside out: a memoir of the blacklist , New York 1996.

E. Dmytryk , Odd man out: a memoir of the Hollywood Ten , Carbondale (IL) 1996.

P. McGilligan , P. Buhle , Tender comrades: a backstory of the Hollywood blacklist , New York 1997.

Th.C. Reeves , The life and times of Joe McCarthy: a biography , Lanham (MD) 1997.

B. Murphy , Congressional theater: dramatizing McCarthyism on stage, film, and television , Cambridge-New York 1999.

G. Muscio , Cinema and cold war, 1946-56 , in History of world cinema , edited by GP Brunetta, 2nd vol., The United States , t. 2, Turin 2000, pp. 1437-61.

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King Kong

پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398

King Kong

The tender-hearted monster

King Kong is a particular monster, frightening in appearance but incredibly human in his feelings. He entered our imagination with the famous 1933 film of the same name, which was a huge success immediately and remained one of the most important titles in the history of cinema

A success that has lasted for more than seventy years

The adventurous plot of a film crew who enters a mysterious island inhabited by prehistoric animals and a giant ape, Kong; the tragic story of the monkey's love for the beautiful actress; the terror of the scenes in which Kong frees himself from the chains and begins to wander the streets of New York destroying everything that happens to him within reach; the wonder of the special effects that were revolutionary at the time were the main ingredients that amazed and moved the public. This was the film King Kong, released in 1933 in the United States, directed by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack.

But King Kong's fame was not limited to those years: his story remained in memory, was re-proposed on the screens in 1976 by John Guillermin and in 2005 by Peter Jakson, and will surely return again to appear.

One wonders why such a story is destined to enjoy such a long life. The answer is perhaps in the final scene of the film. The monster that destroyed subways, crushed passersby, collapsed entire buildings, climbed America's tallest skyscraper, shot down warplanes, is now a huge dead body, the only target of the cameras of curious journalists. A policeman at the foot of the gigantic corpse sighs with relief: "The airplanes have succeeded", but receives a strange answer: "Oh no, it was not the airplanes ... It was the beauty who killed the beast!". In fact, the story of King Kong is first of all that of an impossible love, the one between Beauty and the Beast, just like in the famous fairy tale. Here, however, there is no magic that can transform the monster into a prince:

Monsters no different from us

The great and powerful Kong dies for love, but also because men do not have the sensitivity to understand and accept their behavior and emotions. They only know how to catch him and take him away from his island, put him in chains and exploit him as an attraction in theaters, to get money and success. Monsters are so different from us that they certainly cannot have feelings and do not deserve special attention! One can only imprison and eliminate them. So it happened to the creature born from the experiments of Dr. Frankenstein , so horrible to be seen to be condemned forever to solitude; so happens to Edward Scissorhands, the protagonist of the homonymous film directed by Tim Burton in 1990, he too was born in the laboratory and immediately considered dangerous for his diversity.

King Kong is a living being much closer to us, indeed of all the animals he is the most similar to us. These similarities have become kinship since, in the mid-nineteenth century, Charles Darwin discovered and revealed to the whole world that man and apes have a common ancestor. It was a revolution that upset the widespread opinion that man could not descend from animals.

Since then the figure of the monkey has started to become the protagonist of numerous stories: from the yellow story by Edgar Allan Poe The Murders of the Rue Morgue , to the Tarzan by Edgar Rice Borroughs to The Books of the Jungle by Rudyard Kipling . And The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevensonisn't it the story of a doctor of good society who finds a way to transform himself into a bestial creature whenever he wants? King Kong is therefore not afraid because it is gigantic and very powerful, but because after all that monster was also us, many years ago, perhaps with a little reduced size. Our attempts to keep away those who are different have so miserably failed: cages and chains are no longer enough, monsters have freed themselves and roam the streets of our cities. Rather than running away, we should perhaps learn to talk to them: we may find that the real dangers lie elsewhere.

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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398


summary : 1. Cinema as a cultural industry. 2. The film as an artistic fact: controversy and discussions. □ Bibliography.

1. Cinema as a cultural industry

Cinema, as an invention and as art (it would be better in this case to say the film) embraces the whole of the twentieth century (it was invented, in fact, by the Lumière brothers, not to mentionEdison, in 1895 - the date on which the first projection took place) and it is natural that much attention should be paid to it. Its problems are concentrated and developed in the present century; and they are numerous, because cinema and film for a long time have aroused the attention not only of the financial world (the film industry was one of the largest and its many developments) but also of the cultural one. The latter, after some resistance to consider the film as art, has engaged with it in terms of aesthetics.
The seventh art, likeR. Canudo, her first theorist, wanted to call it, is undoubtedly the form of artistic activity which most of all reveals an intimate bond, a precise correspondence to the economic, social, cultural and artistic conditions of our time. Undoubtedly, the impact that its typical and specific expressive forms have come by exercising on other artistic activities, as has been well felt, beyond the absolute theoretical validity of their formulations, by men likeB. Balázsand SM Eisenstein. They identified in the specific characters of the film the possibility of constituting a form of representation that would implement a total expression of the human and a re-evaluation of the visual culture, but in a new form and full of all the expressive and cognitive possibilities offered to man by development of verbal and literary culture. Politicians, first of all Lenin, warned this from their point of view, who, in consideration of the international and "mass" character of cinema, did not hesitate to say that it was precisely the most important of the arts ". to be directly linked to the conditions of contemporary society, cinema is the art whose nature reveals a denser problematic substance and the lesser possibility of "academic" accommodation. In direct reason for its constitutional sociological, cultural and expressive activity, cinema has continually posed and posed, whatever the level of analysis, new problems that imply a revision or a redefinition of the fundamental principles of aesthetics. It calls for new and more comprehensive answers and, conversely, there is no consideration plan for cinema and its nature that does not immediately pose itself as problematic, that has not aroused and still does not arouse debate and controversy. For this reason it is certainly more appropriate, because more responsive to the essential nature of the phenomenon, to face the definition of cinema and the place it occupies in the artistic panorama of the twentieth century, not in terms of a flat crnistic definition,
The character of actuality, originality and constitutional problematic nature of cinema is already evident at the level of its "technical" nature, and of the corpulence or complexity that the technical moment assumes there. In fact, cinema, more than all the other arts, including the same photography, due to the fact that it is produced in multiple copies, simultaneously and collectively usable, because projected to multiple viewers, enjoys that condition of 'technical reproducibility' of whichW. Benjamin he masterfully indicated the effects in modifying the traditional relationship between the work of art and the public, and therefore of the same social role assumed by the work of art.
Secondly, this very corpulence of the technical fact, with the complex of production and market operations that it implies, has meant that cinema, from the original condition of goods to production and artisan management - which historically corresponds to the phase of the so-called ‛Itinerant cinema '- has been pushed to quickly assume the configuration of a real industrial product. In fact, cinema reflects in itself the mechanisms of an advanced capitalist economy, not only in the phases preceding (financing) and following (distribution) the actual production, but also within it, with the adoption of the typical systems of industrial processes (division of labor and standardization) which have a significant impact on the nature of the 'commodity' of the film, as for its artistic or cultural characteristics. Using, in short, a distinction proposed several times, that between ‛cinema 'and‛ film, it can be said that the character of an industrial product not only determines the mechanisms and production processes of cinema, but is reflected in greater or lessermeasurealso on the structural characteristics of the film. It poses the author's problem in a different and more complex form, for example, and in any case implies a dialectic between the two aspects of cinematographic activity: its nature as a commodity and its nature as an artistic or cultural fact. It is this aspect that makes it a commodity of special quality, with the result that, in fact, these two aspects cannot be separated even if they must be technically distinct; in fact the first acts on the second, but also the second on the first, frustrating any attempt to reach the total rationalization of the production process and its total standardization, which would be in contrast with the special nature of a product which is also an artistic fact in a broad sense , and as such is requested and consumed by the public. Historically, the struggle between the monopolistic and rationalizing tendency in the industrial sense, represented by the large production houses, and the various forms of independent or artisanal production have arisen from this contradiction and the dialectic that derives from it. These have the quality as the only weapon at their disposal, and the individuality of the product; thus they recurrently challenged monopolistic and more markedly industrial groups, certainly not succeeding in overcoming them, but in any case constituting themselves as a powerful stimulus for renewal and overcoming any standardized form. These have the quality as the only weapon at their disposal, and the individuality of the product; thus they recurrently challenged monopolistic and more markedly industrial groups, certainly not succeeding in overcoming them, but in any case constituting themselves as a powerful stimulus for renewal and overcoming any standardized form. These have the quality as the only weapon at their disposal, and the individuality of the product; thus they recurrently challenged monopolistic and more markedly industrial groups, certainly not succeeding in overcoming them, but in any case constituting themselves as a powerful stimulus for renewal and overcoming any standardized form.
It is extremely significant, from this point of view, the failure of the first monopolistic attempt in the history of American cinema, that represented by the creation, in 1909, while in Europedominated the French home of the Pathé brothers, of the Motion Pictures Patents Company (MPPC). It was formed through the association of nine major companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essenay, Selig, Lubim, Calem, American, the French importers Méliès and Pathé, the Kleine distributor) to react to the reckless exploitation of the films prices and unfair methods put in place by the rental. It should be remembered that the rental had gradually become the branch where the highest profits could be obtained, to the detriment of producers or exhibitors, after they had passed from the initial form of the itinerant exercise (in America in the years 1896-1903, in Europe in 1906-1907) to the form of stable exercise, with the construction of large cinemas in areas where the demand was greatest and with the birth of new producers. They were then the owners of the various patents, they had controlled the market until then and they could invest strong capital in production to increase their dominion. The associated companies in the MPPC, P. Bächlin recalls, 'shared their patents, based mainly on Edison's invention, and each of them obtained a production license. This concentration tended not only to suppress domestic competition, but also to curb the advance of the French producers. MPPC formed a de facto monopoly for virgin film by signing an agreement with Eastman until then they had controlled the market and could invest heavy capital in production to increase their dominance. The associated companies in the MPPC, P. Bächlin recalls, 'shared their patents, based mainly on Edison's invention, and each of them obtained a production license. This concentration tended not only to suppress domestic competition, but also to curb the advance of the French producers. MPPC formed a de facto monopoly for virgin film by signing an agreement with Eastman until then they had controlled the market and could invest heavy capital in production to increase their dominance. The associated companies in the MPPC, P. Bächlin recalls, 'shared their patents, based mainly on Edison's invention, and each of them obtained a production license. This concentration tended not only to suppress domestic competition, but also to curb the advance of the French producers. MPPC formed a de facto monopoly for virgin film by signing an agreement with Eastman and each of them obtained a production license. This concentration tended not only to suppress domestic competition, but also to curb the advance of the French producers. MPPC formed a de facto monopoly for virgin film by signing an agreement with Eastman and each of them obtained a production license. This concentration tended not only to suppress domestic competition, but also to curb the advance of the French producers. MPPC formed a de facto monopoly for virgin film by signing an agreement with EastmanKodakthat such material could only be delivered to members of the trust . And control also extended to the branches of the year, with heavy boycotting measures for the operator who had attempted to rent films from the independent, and to distribution, with the creation of a trustin this area, the General Film Company. It quickly secured control of 57 of the 58 existing distribution companies in the United States. "The purpose of this monopoly was to organize a production as cheap as possible, rationally conceived, capable of making super profits. In fact, the elimination of the competition was to lead to higher prices and provide extraordinary profit margins. Production was standardized (MPPC only produced films from 200 to 300 meters), the rights of the authors were reduced (the name of the author or interpreters not it never appeared on the titles because the producers feared to create too great a popularity for them, which would have the effect of increasing their needs; see VSinclair, in William Fox , Praha-London 1936, p. 81). The programs were set up according to fixed schemes and hired out to operators at uniform rates.
This situation, however, provoked the reaction of the producers, distributors and independent operators who focused on increasing quality and on non-standardized production with an 'individualistic concept'. This resulted in the imposition of two important innovations on the production system. In the first place, the transition to the production of feature films, following the example of French and Italian firms that tried to defend their market by differentiating themselves in this way from American production. This had evident consequences not only in terms of the cost of the product, but also in terms of the artistic structure of the works. Second, the inauguration of the star-system , imposed by the independent who had moved en masse to a small suburb ofLos Angeles, Hollywood, and who began to disclose the names of the performers, thus managing to increase the commercial value of their films. The launch of the first star in 1910 ,Mary Pickford, by C. Laemmle. A phenomenon such as divism has had exceptional weight in the history of cinema, and has affected not only the relationships between the film product and the public: in fact, both the specific composition of the cinema audience and the intimate substance of the film, considered as an operation artistic in a broad sense (and therefore the object of attention not only by the sociologist, but also by the critic), originally characterized cinema in its very modern double nature. It depended in turn on the corpulence of the technical fact, as we have repeatedly stressed. We have dwelled on this initial phase of the growth of the film industry, because it can be considered exemplary in that it already contains in itself all the implications that arise from what we have called the double nature of the cinematographic fact. In it it is possible to grasp the economic mechanisms of an advanced capitalist society that mark its industrial development, mechanisms that Bachun first identifies in their historical implementation and then analyzes, in the second part of his study, at the level of economic theory (see Bächlin , 1945).
These mechanisms are in practice the tendency to vertical and horizontal concentration of the various sectors or branches of the production and distribution of the cinematographic product, to the integration of the market, first national, then international, with the consequent hard struggles for the conquest of the various national markets. at a lower level of productivity by the strongest concentrations. Hence the need for increasing availability of capital.
The first trend fatally leads to repeated attempts at monopoly, of trust, as in the case of the American film industry, in which, after the failure of the first cartel attempt, others followed, in the midst of bitter struggles, which saw the progressive intervention of industrial and financial capital (and also of electricity, in the years 1929-1935, era of sound development). InGermany with the UFA and partially in Italy, there are attempts to monopoly controlled directly by the state, mostly due to the need to somehow resist the massive invasion of the European markets by the United States. These phenomena are necessarily accompanied by other closely related phenomena, such as the development of all branches of industry related more or less directly to film production, such as the production of virgin film, the production of various mechanical, optical and electrical equipment, electronic. In order to be able to beat the competition in satisfying demand, production intensified and productivity increased, both by exploiting existing plants as much as possible and by standardizing production processes. The rise in prices was a direct consequence of thenickel-odeons ). Hence the stratification of the market and the audience typical of each production sector, that is, in our case, the distinction in products and circuits of series A and B and, partially, the differentiation into genres.
As regards the phenomenon of standardization, which affects the more general sense of our discourse more closely, it should be noted that it has implications not only of a technical-productive nature, but also of an artistic nature. In particular, it derives not only that anonymous character, from the expressive point of view, totally depersonalized, which has always been the weak side of the film industry, the starting point of independent production or less strong cinemas, but also a considerable resistance by manufacturers to the introduction of new procedures (such as sound reinforcement or color) that could lead to a restructuring. This restructuring implies a massive investment of new capital, the greater the greater the development of the industry. It is clear that, once the need for innovation has been accepted or suffered, large capital ends up prevailing. The producer-industrial therefore, the producer of consumer films, does not tend at all, as it might seem, to the external improvement of the cinema-wonder, because this is prevented by economic laws (unless it is a question of stimulating a stagnant market). The manufacturer is opposed to technical innovations that can lead to an increase in costs, just as, conversely, he opposes once a certain standard level of the product and costs has been reached, to any type of production that lowers costs and makes therefore the production machine he set up was useless and unproductive. The producer-industrial therefore, the producer of consumer films, does not tend at all, as it might seem, to the external improvement of the cinema-wonder, because this is prevented by economic laws (unless it is a question of stimulating a stagnant market). The manufacturer is opposed to technical innovations that can lead to an increase in costs, just as, conversely, he opposes once a certain standard level of the product and costs has been reached, to any type of production that lowers costs and makes therefore the production machine he set up was useless and unproductive. The producer-industrial therefore, the producer of consumer films, does not tend at all, as it might seem, to the external improvement of the cinema-wonder, because this is prevented by economic laws (unless it is a question of stimulating a stagnant market). The manufacturer is opposed to technical innovations that can lead to an increase in costs, just as, conversely, he opposes once a certain standard level of the product and costs has been reached, to any type of production that lowers costs and makes therefore the production machine he set up was useless and unproductive. because this is prevented by economic laws (unless it is a question of stimulating a stagnant market). The manufacturer is opposed to technical innovations that can lead to an increase in costs, just as, conversely, he opposes once a certain standard level of the product and costs has been reached, to any type of production that lowers costs and makes therefore the production machine he set up was useless and unproductive. because this is prevented by economic laws (unless it is a question of stimulating a stagnant market). The manufacturer is opposed to technical innovations that can lead to an increase in costs, just as, conversely, he opposes once a certain standard level of the product and costs has been reached, to any type of production that lowers costs and makes therefore the production machine he set up was useless and unproductive.
But here once again comes into play that double nature of the film product that constitutes the center of our discourse. In this sense, two events are particularly clarifying of the imbalances that this double nature produces in the development of cinema and of the fact that the history of the film, as an artistic fact, cannot be studied independently of the history of the film industry, and vice versa, under penalty of abstractness.
The first of these "exemplary events" concerns the question of sound, exemplifying the resistance to innovation that has been discussed and the need to adapt once a technical-productive "improvement" has imposed itself on the public, that is, he could say, has proved to be responsive to the "aesthetic" needs of an audience who, even when they only seek evasion in the film, cannot be satisfied with the standardized product, totally subject to the laws of the production of goods. Attempts at simultaneous recording and reproduction of images and sounds can be dated back to the beginning of the century (Edison, Gaumont, Messter etc.) and were resumed with greater intensity in the post-war period (disc systems and film systems), up to being completely perfected in 1925. The producers were against this innovation, but a production company, Warner Bros., was forced to kick off the phonofilm in 1926-1927, to urge a stagnant market and to respond to the threat posed by the phonofilm itself. Due to the profound changes that the novelty imposed in production and in the exercise (equipment), at first it was only Fox and Warner to make a decisive commitment on this path. This of course had very great consequences: modifications of the equipment, of the rooms, of the theaters, and disappearance of some of the silent stars; consequent need for new capital, which came mainly from the electricity industry and the banking capital that supported it (Morgan and Rockefeller, who stood behind the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and RCA); resumption of the patent battle; struggle for the conquest of the national and international market, with the clash, for example, between the American and German industries for the conquest of the English market. The result was a division of the world markets, with reserved areas and areas open to free competition.
But it is clear that the imposition of sound, with the consequent phenomena of an economic nature, could only take place due to the success of the public. In short, a certain type of solicitation of the stagnant market occurred (after the concomitant attempts of color films, relief screens, etc.) only because it responded to a need of the public, which made this innovation stable unlike others. But the fact remains of the producers' resistance to innovations, resistance confirmed by the second of those exemplary events to which we have mentioned. Eisenstein's reader will remember that among the technical requirements advanced by the most brilliant director in the history of the film, there is that, deeply rooted in his purovisibilistic and psychoformalistic culture, of the variability of the screen format. Well, recalls CL Ragghianti that a young American director, G. Alvey, had devised a suitable system, which however had been totally neglected by the producers, not only, evidently, because its introduction was not cheap (this would not have been sufficient, as we have seen ), but also, because the cinematic taste had now been channeled on a different path from that which was the foundation of avant-garde poetics, as is the case with Eisenstein, that is, on a road that oriented cinema towards satisfying the fantastic needs of type ‛narrative 'or‛ dramatic' rather than in other directions. It is clear that these speeches do not imply a theoretical and historically unsustainable hypothesis of artistic progress coinciding with the technical improvement, nor a will to define the film as an artistic fact based on the public's taste. In fact, it is clear that this taste and the consequent anche needs' even when they are alternative and involve a renewal, are ultimately determined, at the medium level, not by reasons of respect for the characters or better of the expressive potential of the medium, but by the ‛economic correspondence 'of certain development choices to the cultural needs of the public. This should make us think of those who support the narrative nature of the film from various points of view, such as Aristarchus ('All in all, it's more like a novel than a statue ") or how in the final analysis, at the medium level, they are determined not by reasons of respect for the characteristics or better of the expressive potential of the medium, but by the "economic" correspondence of certain development choices to the cultural needs of the public. This should make us think of those who support the narrative nature of the film from various points of view, such as Aristarchus ('All in all, it's more like a novel than a statue ") or how in the final analysis, at the medium level, they are determined not by reasons of respect for the characteristics or better of the expressive potential of the medium, but by the "economic" correspondence of certain development choices to the cultural needs of the public. This should make us think of those who support the narrative nature of the film from various points of view, such as Aristarchus ('All in all, it's more like a novel than a statue ") or howMetz (‟We do not talk about cinema as theoretically it could be but about the film as it is, that is, narrative"), on the correctness of the thesis that takes the choices of the cultural industry as a theoretical argument. ‛Specific film '(of which we will discuss further), we intend to reiterate that it is not possible to ignore the industrial production character of cinema and that therefore it is necessary to take into account its special quality of intellettuale intellectual goods' and the impact of this character on development the very structures of the film industry.
On the one hand, we have seen that the economic conflict (small producers versus large) objectively determines a stimulus for the research and articulation of language. Just think of what represented the increase in footage or the emergence of divism: the first stimulated a greater and more complex articulation of visual dramaturgy and the spatio-temporal structures of the image; the second determined certain choices, above all spatial at the level of the plane, with an objective development of that 'alphabet of gestures', of micro-physiognomy, which are among the foundations of the silent film, as B. Balázs observes.
On the other hand, we see how the artistica artistic question 'that the public pours into the film makes the process of production development in this sector increasingly precarious and anomalous, making its assoluta absolute rationalization impossible'. The latter fact is particularly underlined by the evolution of cinema in the second post-war period. In fact, as an alternative to the standardized Hollywood cinematography based on the actor's divism, on the tendential anonymity of the 'product' (of which the so-called 'coverage method' is the most sensational sign), on the high cost of films connected to the gigantism that characterizes monopolistic production - as an alternative to all this, neorealism has revived a different model of cinema. In it, the very low level of costs coincides with the refusal to consider the film as any commercial product, with the refusal of all advertising and "persuasive" appeal and references. The film is considered, however, a means available to anyone who wants to express their own attitude towards reality, as is done with a pen or brush.
In this way, low-cost cinema coincided with the idea of ​​the auteur film, with a form of use of the medium regulated exclusively by the expressive reasons of the director, in opposition to the division of labor and the dominant specialist in standardized production. , present in each of the stages of processing and technical execution of the film. Just think, in this regard, of the Italian neorealistic and post-neorealistic cinema, the nouvelle vagueFrench, to the NAC, etc. In short, it seems clear that every movement to relaunch the film as an artistic fact is accompanied by formulas and production systems which are, at least at the beginning, a radical negation of the production systems typical of highly industrialized cinemas. And it is also clear that this creates repercussions within this type of production, provokes first the irritated resistance, then the partial crisis, and finally forces it to accept new quality levels, to integrate and make its own the needs on which founded the 'opposition cinema'. The spectacular artifice is thus rejected for a production careful to grasp the problems of today's man in a more direct way; more modern and flexible stylistic structures are affirmed, less dominated by the myth of grammatical and spectacular correctness; the actor's divism is replaced with a sort of author's divism, as is demonstrated by the attempt, made recurrently by American cinema, to secure the work of the most prestigious European authors, and by the progressive, substantial modification of the typology of the actor, who tends more and more to lose the physiognomy of the exceptional character to take on daily connotations.
It is clear that, on the basis of these new qualitative balances, imposed from time to time on large-scale production, then settling cycles and a renewed tendency towards standardization begin, as it is in the nature of cinema as an industrial fact. But this does not happen without profound changes in the productive structures that see this or that type of concentration rise or fall, the prevalence of this or that productive sector surfacing and disappearing. If, in the final analysis, the laws that regulate cinema as an industry are still those that characterize the production of commodities in the capitalist system, it is not irrelevant to note both the special quality of the ‛commodity-film ', and the fact that, also considered as a commodity, the film cannot ignore the ‛artistic 'or fantastic demand that its consumer, the audience pours it out. These are factors of movement and contradiction at the same time, which, if they do not determine, at least stimulate and help to set in motion the processes of restructuring of the film industry.
From this point of view, it may be interesting to consider briefly the probable results to which the defense of cinema will bring against the last major danger that faces it, the increasingly massive competition of television, which responds more economically to the need 'pictures' of the audience. Those who think that once and perhaps definitively the cinema will have to focus all its cards on the artistic quality of the product seem right. That is, refused the enticements of the greatest show in the world - of which the habit of the television image is destined to produce obsolescence, certainly not without contingent contradictory thrusts - the cinema will make its own the latest tape recording techniques and the most agile structures of television language.

2. The film as an artistic fact: controversy and discussions

In reproducing the formula according to which film is an art and cinema an industry, one does not want to affirm a rigid separation between these two aspects: it has already become clear how, in the concrete reality of the cinematographic fact, they intertwine, as they interfere in their respective spheres. And yet the maintenance of this distinction has its precise methodological value, to the extent that, in order to fully grasp the nature of the problems posed by film activity in theoretical-aesthetic, historical-cultural and critical terms, it is necessary to grasp a level of analysis that you specifically treat the film as an artistic or expressive fact.
Also from this point of view, the film reveals a profound problematic substance that places it in the midst of the contemporary artistic debate. In short, the film offers a field of problems that have often given rise to heated controversy and that characterize its continuous mobility and contradictory solutions, due to the complexity of its structure and the accentuation of one of the three fundamental components that determine its artistic character. . These components are: the photographic-dynamic quality - or 'photogenic ", to use a Canudo term - of the cinematographic material or of the cinematographic image as such; the quality implicit in the characteristics of the shot and the montage; the presence of a ‛prefilmic 'material, or‛ plastic material' (object and dramatic) with meaning.
Contradictory already reveals the question of the so-called rivela birth of cinema '; in fact, it is not only a question of an "archaeological" nature, but invests the same problem as a comprehensive definition of what cinema is. The debate, in this regard, is between those who argue that cinema was born with the invention of the Lumière brothers and those who instead see in the latter only the most recent and satisfactory landing from a technical point of view (first, of course, of TV ) of a millenary research towards the production of animated images. In the first case, while not denying the continuity with a consolidated artistic-scientific tradition, it is believed that the equipment invented by the Lumière produces images whose quality contains a substantial novelty, the photographic one (as it underlinesG. Sadoul, L. Lumière, of all those who devoted themselves, in the nineteenth and earlier, to the search for devices that produced moving images, he is the first to reproduce photographed images in this sense). In the second case, however, a purely technical importance is attributed to this aspect. In the first case, therefore, it is stated that with the synthesis of photography and movement a new art is born, a new form of creative relationship between man and reality; in the second case it is stated that there is progress concerning only the phase of technical execution, of fixation, allowed by the development of the sciences ‛jointly, by definitive fixation, by Plateau, with the principle of persistence of the image on the retina and its duration), but at the interior of an artistic form always present in the culture and spirit of man. In short, to put it with Ragghianti, he would not have been born with the Lumière brothers' apparatusOrpheusbut, more modestly, the gramophone. And in fact some stories of cinema begin with the graffiti of the caves ofAltamira(about which, moreover, it has been recognized that these are not attempts to represent animals in the race, but, much more anally, to different and overlapping engravings). Others put the description of Achilles' shield and the development of the Antonina column, the automatons of Heron of Alexandria and the few verses of Lucretius where we speak of moving images "as manifestations of cinematographic art".
Now, it is evident that underlining the radical novelty inherent in the photographic nature of filmic images (the animated drawing evidently arises within a different order of problems) is very important. And this not only from the point of view of the definition of cinema as an industry, nor only from the psychological and sociological point of view (being clear that the conditions of the relationship between image and audience that are determined in the film, as substantially ‛illusion of reality ' and ‛identification ', derive from the photographic character, as well as from the dynamic one, of the images themselves). But it is also important at the level of aesthetic theory and critical methodology: for those who deny that cinema can be substantially identified with other forms ofkinetic art, the problem is not so much in establishing the date of invention of cinematographic art (as Ceram observes, cinema was 'invented' as a technical fact, the film is not, because, being art, it is not invented). Rather, it is a question of avoiding, from this problematic level, that the given definition is forced into the wider and a priori definition of kinetic art or, even, of visual spectacle, without being inclusive of the real quality of the film image, of the specials characters and problems that arise from his photographic substance.
In other words, it is a question of avoiding positions of an abstractly definitive and normative type, which preclude the possibility of understanding certain manifestations of film art or even deny its artistic quality. On the other hand, an indirect confirmation of this can be found in the fact that those who, like Popper, study the manifestations of kinetic art, correctly and rigorously cover only a very narrow field of the film - the one in which the use the cinematographic medium is purely and explicitly instrumental (the experiments of H. Richter and Eggeling, just to give an example) and where the formal intent is all pictorial-kinetic in nature. Again with regard to the origins, another and broader problem is evidently that of establishing the importance of avant-garde movements in the determination and development of film language; they were particularly attentive to the study of dynamic forms. Therefore, since movement is a constitutive element of the filmic image, it is evident that the encounter between cinematographic authors and avant-garde theories contributed to the determination of the film's rhythmic structures. But this concerns the historical and cultural roots of the film, certainly not its technical definition. avant-garde contributed to the determination of the film's rhythmic structures. But this concerns the historical and cultural roots of the film, certainly not its technical definition. avant-garde contributed to the determination of the film's rhythmic structures. But this concerns the historical and cultural roots of the film, certainly not its technical definition.
The problem of the ‛birth of cinema 'is of particular interest as it reflects in itself the other true, great dominant problem in film culture both in the theoretical and practical fields: the research and determination of the unique and specific quality of art filmic or the ‛specific filmic ', as it has been almost universally defined. This is undoubtedly the central axis, the constant point of reference of the reflection on the film and of the film poetics, beyond the variation of the historical-social situations and the theories or cultural fashions from which the problem posed by the cinema to contemporary culture. There is no doubt, in fact, that each of the major topics of debate that have emerged in the field of film culture are only a way of expressing this fundamental problem, even in the extreme, but not uncommon case, which denies its validity and theoretical foundations. And, more precisely, these positions have depended on the accentuation of one of those three structural components of the filmic fact mentioned above; accentuation, of course, itself determined by some cultural dominants relating to the period.
From a purely theoretical point of view, the film places, in close relationship with the components that have been mentioned, three orders of different problems, namely: the problem of the relationship between art and nature, determined by the fundamental basic photographic realism; the problem of the importance of technique; and, finally, the problem of the distinction of the film with respect to the other arts and therefore, in general, the problem of the distinction of the arts and the possible possibility of integrating this concept within the general principle of the unity of art.
Considered from a historical point of view, the question of the ‛specific film 'and the‛ dignity of art' of the film could obviously only be resolved by the first theorists of the film in a positive sense (also in consideration of the fact that only under this condition the formation of the cinematographic language as an articulated and autonomous language was possible). On these premises, one could only orient oneself in the sense of differentiation with respect to the other arts. So the first phase of theoretical reflection and cinematographic poetics (whether or not made) is marked by the certainty of the special quality and dignity of art of the new forms of image production. This certainty, the more firmly absent the greater the resistance of the official culture, will be a strong stimulus for linguistic experimentalism; in the same direction there will be a tendency to find a technical basis in the distinction, and therefore in the autonomy, of the new art compared to the historically consolidated ones, of which cinema, in its first stammering forms, could seem the humble handmaid. Therefore, the substantially, though not intentionally, pragmatic character of the first theorizations about the film cannot escape: a character that will determine its scarce theoretical rigor and the tendency to base the most diverse general aesthetic theories, on the basis of which will assume this or that thesis, without bothering to make the theorization of the film as an artistic fact arise from the complex of its constituent elements. Hence the danger, therefore,C. Brandi) and in any case the notion of ‛specific film ', to which many theoretical-methodological values ​​have been denied from many sides. And this will be the tendency of the second phase of the theoretical reflection on the film, which characterizes the post-war period and which still lasts especially in some semiology scholars, in particularE. Garroni.
Returning to what we have called the first phase of the theories about the film, we can say that it is characterized, beyond the unequal nature of the different contributions, by the attempt to grasp, on the basis of different elements and different cultural motivations, the differentiation of the cinema from the theater (as opposed to the forms of "photographed theater" and therefore to the purely passive use of the film instrument, the camera). In general, the first phase of the theories about the film is characterized by the negation of the 'subject', which on the other hand unites cinema with many manifestations of contemporary art, and by the affirmation of its substantial visual nature.
Canudo's contribution as a pioneer and prophet deserves to be remembered. By attempting a naive hierarchical classification of the unified arts in absolute art, which would be cinema, as an art in which space and time are synthesized, he first defines the notion of photogenicity, which will then be taken up again and developed fromL. Delluc. The first important definitions of cinema as an ‛antitheatre 'and, more generally, as an autonomous art, are based on the extreme mobility and variability of space and of cinematographic time with respect to the limits and the' concentration 'of space and theatrical time, such as takes place in SA Luciani's theorization, above all, but also in the observations of K. Pinthus in the introduction to his Kino-buch of 1913. Or they are based on the revealing virtue of the 'mechanical eye', capable of making us discover unknown aspects of the visible world, that only the camera would be able to represent. Or on the notion of rhythm, of 'music of the eyes ", according to a pregnant definition ofG. Dulac. Therefore, what unites the first theoretical reflections on the film is the insistence on its special ‛visuality ', on its ability to make us see things in a different way and on the possibility, implicit in the editing, of totally restructuring the space-time coordinates of the daily experience and at the same time to break the constraints and conventions of space and time proper to theatrical dramaturgy. In short, there is an absolute enhancement of the characters that depend on the nature of the technical medium - the quality of the photographic-dynamic image and the constructive virtualities of the montage intended as a visual rhythm factor - with respect to the "content" of the shot and its possible narrative values or dramatic. It should be reiterated that this was vital for the conquest and articulation of an autonomous language, but it is also important to underline how in the end, perhaps in a naive and not very rigorous way, the so-called "pioneers" had grasped a point of fundamental importance for the definition of the artistic character of cinema, which cannot be identified more that in the process of recovery and in the expressive or creative possibilities that are implicit in this. It is therefore only partially true that the various theories of the ‛specific film 'have had an instrumental and transient function, albeit important, as Aristarchus essentially states: certainly they have often had a partial, normative character, determined by the‛ taste' staff of theorists and authors and the cultural conditions in which they found themselves acting, but this does not nullify the theoretical validity of the basic principle. Asking the question of whether cinema is art or not means asking oneself whether the actual film operation has a virtual creative character for its specific possibilities, otherwise the problem makes no sense. And, given this, the question of the 'specific film' is not only an abstract theoretical question, but evidently invests the ways of fruition and the method of critical analysis and evaluation of the film, as is also clear for those who deny the ‛Specific film 'itself.
An account is therefore the exclusion of any form of definition and normative use of the notion of ‛specific film 'and the need to reach a definition that is positively inclusive of all the components of the film operation and all the possible forms of the their concrete implementation, another is instead to totally deny the validity of the notion itself. Of course, supporting the fundamental theoretical validity of the first theories and poetics about the film does not mean denying that the concrete solutions proposed - which were resolved in favoring this or that aspect of the film operation and in contrasting it, as unique, positive and characterizing to others - were determined by personal "taste" and, more generally, by artistic theories, from the aesthetic concepts and poetics dominant in the different periods. Of course, if cinema is a new art, in the sense that it offers man an expressive tool of special and differentiated quality, this does not mean that it is eradicated from history and from contemporary cultural and artistic conditions or immediately preceding his birth. It is clear that if the "sensitivity" of the theorists or artists had not been stimulated and directed in some way to grasp certain "artistic" values ​​implicit in the cinematographic image, these same values ​​would never have been identified. And it is equally clear that the actual concrete implementation of the film's expressive forms, both spatial and temporal and rhythmic, it would not have been determined without the presence of a problematic terrain common to other arts and art in general. And a defect, in fact, of the summaries of theories of the film, is precisely to review the various formulations as well as theoretical propositions, accepting or denying their validity, without worrying about identifying their historical-cultural matrices with precision. Just as a defect of the various stories of the cinematographic language or of the various "grammars" is that of ignoring the historical "content" of which the spatial and temporal articulations of the film language are charged, their derivation from previous theories and artistic forms. In particular, we can identify, as the cultural foundation of the expressive choices of the film at the time of its formation, at least in the in the European context, two large matrices, which are the theories of pure ‛visibility ', especially in its psychological variant formulated by Hildebrandt (as Ragghianti rightly observed), and the theories called psychoformalistic with their ancestry in the positivistic‛ experimental aesthetic' which is, as is well known, the origin of many 20th century artistic poetics. There is no doubt, for example, that the theoretical reflection of the first Balázs, that of origin of many artistic poetics of the twentieth century. There is no doubt, for example, that the theoretical reflection of the first Balázs, that of origin of many artistic poetics of the twentieth century. There is no doubt, for example, that the theoretical reflection of the first Balázs, that ofDer sichtbare Mensch - which affirms the ability of cinema to reintegrate the ‛visual culture 'by winning the centuries-old supremacy of verbal culture, and which identifies, among the specific values ​​of the film, the‛ micro-physiognomy' and the ‛micromimic ', as the ability to reveal the man through the careful perception and representation of his face caught in its becoming - both of clear purovisibilistic derivation. Just as there is no doubt that the same cultural root, albeit strongly mediated by cultural suggestions of another nature, have the theories and filmic practices that are called visualistic, from those of the French sphere, which are gathered around the notion of photogenic , to that of the Soviet ‛cineocchio 'D. Vertov. In short, the accentuation of the expressive value of the characters of the cinematographic image, of its ability to represent things in their visible aspect and in their becoming is not only the product of a form of ‛camera fetishism ', of an infantile joy of in front of a sort of technical toy.
This accentuation, in fact, beyond the extremist formulations of the "pioneers", has remained an essential component of film expression even in its forms of implementation more related to reasons of a dramatic or narrative order. It has rather precise correspondences with a cultural situation that must be understood and evaluated precisely in order not to fall into that error of abstract formalism with which the 'visualists' are accused, on the basis of a malposed conception of the content-form relationship or of too much reductive and crude notion of content. Thus the psychological and psychoformalist conceptions which are certainly at the basis of the special emotional and symbolic value entrusted to certain spatial and assembly structures. It is not possible, for example, do not connect the special emotional value entrusted to the close plans by the Soviet directors (Eisenstein and Pudovkin in particular) and by Balázs, and the different forms of their use, to the opposition between ‛distant vision '(contemplative,‛ intellectual') and ‛vision neighbor '(physiological, emotional) theorized by Hildebrandt. Indeed, it would be very useful to analyze from this point of view the form of use of close-ups and long fields in the work of those directors. And, as regards the determination of the dramatic or symbolic value of spatial and rhythmic forms on the basis of the psychophysiological effect obtained on the spectators (clear result of experimental aesthetics), we cannot fail to remember the terms in which Pudovkin, in his writing , found the opposition between slow rhythm (corresponding to a state of contemplative calm by the spectator) and rapid rhythm (state of intense, physiologically experimentable, emotional participation), which is then the poi rhythmic correspondent 'of the opposition between distant vision and near vision. And, furthermore, it cannot be ignored that the whole theme of the symbolic value of the different geometric forms - passed in cinema above all through the expressionistic experience - has its roots, too, in psycho-formalistic theories and poetics: it is based on motivations of a psychophysiological nature, on the types of reaction of this nature determined by the different geometric shapes in the audience. As it happens, moreover, for the reflection on the symbolic value of colors.Das Kabinett des Dr. Caligari , purely pictorial-scenographic way), thus contributing to further ways of articulating the cinematographic shot. Now, establishing these cultural links would perhaps be an idle operation, if one did not grasp their character as a stimulus to the articulation of the recovery and thefoundation, in the final analysis, of the concrete expressive forms of the film, and if it were not felt, on the other hand, that these connections and applications become truly effective and important only when they take on a specifically cinematographic form, when they manage to permeate the methods themselves of the film shot.
Before that, we are at the stage of pure fixation and serial reproduction of forms that have their artistic and cultural value regardless of whether they are cinematographed; afterwards, we are faced with an operation of artistic restructuring of reality that is exercised and implemented through the filmic operation, which from a passive recording instrument becomes precisely an instrument and a form of intervention on reality. Also from the point of view, therefore, of the determination of cultural connections with artistic theories and poetics, the notion of "specific film" maintains its validity and function intact. And this obviously applies even when it comes to establishing the relationships and mutual influences of the film with other forms of artistic activity, with the various avant-garde movements.Das Kabinett des Dr. Caligari (1919) are an anticipation and also a stimulus to conquer the multiplicity of shooting angles and their loro symbolization '; the same can be said for the enlarged and dilated objects present in the same film. But it is equally true that similar processes, similar proposals for the symbolic restructuring of space and object will become relevant and important from the point of view of the film only when they manage to impress the cinematographic shot, that is, they will become a constitutive part of the form of relationship with the reality that man realizes, through filming, in a film: see, for example, Der letzte Mann(1924) by FW Murnau, or Dreyer's films. In short, for the scholar of the film, it is not the detection of this or that cultural connection, of this or that constructive process considered in ‛abstract ', of this or that stylistic feature, but the identification of the articulation forms of the shot that these connections and processes stimulate and determine. Apart from this perspective of analysis, which has the notion of "specific film" as its theoretical foundation, concrete knowledge of the artistic fact is not given, but an abstract history of forms or culture.
To resume, now, the general thread of the discourse on the forms of ‛linguistic articulation in which the notion of‛ specific film has historically materialized, with the accentuation of this or that basic component of the cinematographic fact, it should be clarified that those proposals must certainly not be considered conclusive statements but working hypotheses to cover a field of investigation which is still quite unexplored. It must be said, for example, that the insistence on the visibilistic and psychoformalistic component of the historical-cultural roots of the cinematographic language certainly does not mean that the articulation, the ‛conquest 'of the latter took place only on the basis of figurative research and rhythmic. L' The articulation of the recovery was also determined and in a massive measure by the need and willingness to organize the action in forms that correspond to the specific qualities of the medium, its dynamism and its extreme ability to articulate and change the spaces and times of the action, that is, from the need to create a new form of visual dramaturgy. But the possibility of obtaining a form of object and plastic significance, already implicit in the assembly (both inside and outside the painting), and determined by the ‛logic of implication 'that arises from the combination of different images in space and over time. In short, wanting to maintain a perhaps questionable distinction for convenience, it is clear that the push towards spatial and temporal articulation of the shooting was also determined, and above all, at the level of the content of the film image as well as its shape: obviously meaning by content the meaning that the image assumes to be put in relation with others in the space inside the In the frame or in the sequence, in the assembly line, and in shape, all its visual, compositional and rhythmic determinations not directly related to this level of meaning. As is well known, the major contributions in this area came from American cinema: from ES Porter, from TH Ince and from DW Griffith, but also from the comic film. In this regard, one cannot neglect the great contribution made to the articulation of the filmic language by an author like Ch. Chaplin, both with a film like at the level of the content of the film image as well as its shape: obviously meaning by content the meaning that the image assumes to be put in relation with others in the space within the frame or in the succession, in the assembly line, and by shape all its visual, compositional and rhythmic determinations not directly related to this level of meaning. As is well known, the major contributions in this area came from American cinema: from ES Porter, from TH Ince and from DW Griffith, but also from the comic film. In this regard, one cannot neglect the great contribution made to the articulation of the filmic language by an author like Ch. Chaplin, both with a film like at the level of the content of the film image as well as its shape: obviously meaning by content the meaning that the image assumes to be put in relation with others in the space within the frame or in the succession, in the assembly line, and by shape all its visual, compositional and rhythmic determinations not directly related to this level of meaning. As is well known, the major contributions in this area came from American cinema: from ES Porter, from TH Ince and from DW Griffith, but also from the comic film. In this regard, one cannot neglect the great contribution made to the articulation of the filmic language by an author like Ch. Chaplin, both with a film like obviously meaning by content the meaning that the image assumes to be put in relation with others in the internal space of the frame or in the succession, in the assembly line, and by form all its visual, compositional and rhythmic determinations not directly referable at this level of signification. As is well known, the major contributions in this area came from American cinema: from ES Porter, from TH Ince and from DW Griffith, but also from the comic film. In this regard, one cannot neglect the great contribution made to the articulation of the filmic language by an author like Ch. Chaplin, both with a film like obviously meaning by content the meaning that the image assumes to be put in relation with others in the internal space of the frame or in the succession, in the assembly line, and by form all its visual, compositional and rhythmic determinations not directly referable at this level of signification. As is well known, the major contributions in this area came from American cinema: from ES Porter, from TH Ince and from DW Griffith, but also from the comic film. In this regard, one cannot neglect the great contribution made to the articulation of the filmic language by an author like Ch. Chaplin, both with a film like and by form all its visual, compositional and rhythmic determinations not directly related to this level of meaning. As is well known, the major contributions in this area came from American cinema: from ES Porter, from TH Ince and from DW Griffith, but also from the comic film. In this regard, one cannot neglect the great contribution made to the articulation of the filmic language by an author like Ch. Chaplin, both with a film like and by form all its visual, compositional and rhythmic determinations not directly related to this level of meaning. As is well known, the major contributions in this area came from American cinema: from ES Porter, from TH Ince and from DW Griffith, but also from the comic film. In this regard, one cannot neglect the great contribution made to the articulation of the filmic language by an author like Ch. Chaplin, both with a film likeA woman of Paris (1923), in which the dramatic significance through the objects (the collar, for example) and the allusiveness obtained by purely plastic means, reach absolutely perfect forms, both with other works, including minor and early ones , where the comic gag never disregards, rather it is determined, in its result, by the precise knowledge and use of the specific spatial and temporal forms of the film. The western too , even in its most elementary forms, and police cinema, which had a great experimental function, stimulated by the need to constitute a form of continuity, also contributed.specifically filmic drama, in which each passage of the plane, each intersection of spaces and times contributes to the progress of the action represented, or rather is constructed by the camera.
The Soviet research, particularly Eisenstein's, on intellectual montage, on the possibility of constituting an abstract meaning, totally free from any dramaturgical or narrative support, was equally important. Indeed, as is well known, the debates and controversies for or against the ‛specific film 'arose from the clash of two trends: one led to see the possibility of constituting film meaning only on the basis of a dramatic action, such to provide the indispensable function of contextualization of the images on which alone could be concretely founded the logic of implication of which we spoke; the other, however, brought to see in editing the concrete possibility of implementing a new form of ideogrammatic language based exclusively on the psychic and intellectual processes set in motion by the forms of editing itself. In essence, that is, at least in a certain phase, the question of the ‛specific film 'was identified with the question of the ability of absolute or instead only relative significance inherent in the editing, and in some way and in different forms determined by the attachment to a dramatic context. This clash of ideas had basically two phases. The first, internal to the theory of montage as "film specific", coincides with the controversy between Pudovkin and Eisenstein; centered precisely in the definition of the montage, it was then reflected in a whole other series of problems closely related to it. As Eisenstein points out, the controversy can be summarized in the formula assembly = connection (for Pudovkin) and assembly = contrast (for Eisenstein). On the one hand, a concept for which meaning is obtained through the connection of the various pieces guided and determined by the development of a theme which is embodied in a dramatic action and which is concretely implemented through assembly (but which certainly allows , within it, also forms of abstract or metaphorical meaning - suffice for all the famous example of the ‛joy of the prisoner made possible only by their relevance and their connection to the development of a dramatic theme); on the other hand, a concept for which signification arises thanks to the assembly, therefore by virtue of the clash or conflict between the different cells of the assembly sequence and the visual-psychic-intellectual process that this clash sets in motion in the viewer, according to the well-known image-emotion-idea scheme. With regard to this scheme, the audience retraces the construction process of the film in reverse; thus there is the possibility, at least theoretical and tendential, of having in the montage a form of meaning that is equally articulated and at the same time richer than verbal language, because it is capable of reintegrating the sensorial-emotional sphere. We said that from this nucleus of problems radiate a series of antithetical positions of the two great directors with respect to numerous issues in which certainly the ‛taste 'and the‛ poetic' personal of the authors play, but the this fundamental element remains the fundamental opposition on the meaning of the editing and on the ways of its application. These are the famous controversies about editinga priori or a posteriori , of the di iron screenplay ', supported by Pudovkin, or of the screenplay as a' cinematographic novel ', according to Eisenstein, not a film project but a pure source of emotional stimulus; about the role of the actor and the structure of the character; finally, about the character of an individual or collective work of the film. All issues that will prove to be linked to the problem of defining montage as a ‛specific film ', every time and from any point of view this problem will be addressed.
The second phase of the montage debate, as a specific form of filmic signification, coincides with the denial of montage itself, with the definite theory and practice of non-montage, and that had its initiator in A. Bazin. Briefly, this position can be summarized in the opposition to a cinema of the 'image' (in which signification is obtained at the price of a violation of the sense immanent in things, with the total manipulation of the space-time coordinates of reality, with the violent and arbitrary extraction of the object element from its "natural" context and its insertion in a totally abstract discursive chain) of a cinema of "reality" as in certain undergroundin which signification takes place through the pure display of reality itself, or rather of the situation, which carries its own meaning within itself. In concrete terms, this means identifying the real plane of filmic significance exclusively in the dramatic situation and supporting as uniquely relevant forms of construction of the film which are characterized by absolute respect for this continuity, such as the various forms of internal editing (depth of field and shooting mobile) - as opposed to the so-called assembly of short pieces, which fragments, disarticulates and recomposes the space-time continuity of the situation as you wish (just think of the episode of Potëmkin's wheelchair). It is all too obvious the objection that it is in any case an assembly operation, because assembly is respected the general principle which consists in the attribution of meaning to the single object or plastic element through its connection with others. But the fact remains that here, in a much more sensitive way than in Pudovkin, the priority of the dramatic or narrative situation is underlined as the basis of the meaning of the film.
From this, a precise approach is generated regarding the problem of determining the development of the forms of filmic meaning and, more generally, of the cinematographic language: a setting that sees the development of the forms of articulation of the shot as the acquisition of a dimension and a capacity An increasingly complex and flexible narrative which substantially configures the development of the cinematographic language in terms of progressive evolution from the initial pictorial and theatrical forms towards forms ever closer to complexity, mobility and thickness of the novel structure.
Now, if there is no doubt that the search for ever more agile and complex forms of articulation of action is one of the trend lines that we can identify in the history of cinema, if there is no doubt that this type of research has strongly contributed to the development of the expressive means of the film, it is necessary to underline that an approach that exhausts the totality of the cinematographic fact in this perspective is dangerous, reductive and theoretically incorrect, for various reasons. In the first place because such an approach, falling, at the very moment in which it denies it, in the greatest of the dangers inherent in the notion of ‛specific filmic ', arises in terms of essentialistic and normative proposition, excluding or even considering erroneous other lines of tendency and development of the film language based on the accentuation of different aspects, but equally rooted in the nature of the medium of expression. Secondly, because, faced with the concrete and individual filmic operation, it can prevent us from grasping the complexity of the formal levels and the diversity or differentiation of the expressive motivations. Thirdly, taking the form of organization of the action as the exclusive and absolute reference point, it can lead us to neglect the fact that, in any case, it is never a process of fixing an existing action and endowed with meaning, nor, as regards the so-called forms of filmic intelligibility and the ‛narrative structures', of simple processes of transcription of forms and structures already existing and operating in other ways of linguistic specification. In fact, it must always be kept in mind that, even in the case of works whose fundamental construction rule is determined by the organization of a significant action, we are faced with an operation of training intervention on the phenomenal, which has in the recovery and in its articulated unfolding the primary and characterizing structural element.
In short, the various forms of dramaturgical organization of the material must also be understood and understood as specifications of the formative relationship between filming and ‛reality 'that cinema implies, specifications whose choice by an author is in itself an indication of the fundamental terms of the its poetics and, indeed, its more general position in the artistic and cultural panorama. In short, the choice between literary narration and filmic narration is not indifferent, not only because it implies a diversity of technical problems, but above all because it already implies a different formative attitude towards reality. The discriminant lies in the different quality of the chosen form of expression and consequently of the field of experience (or artistic organization of the experience) to the inside of which the author's individual discourse takes place and takes place. Keeping this fundamental point in mind serves to frustrate any comparison between literary structures and film structures, which is quite idle, unless it takes place within a macro-historical discourse, tending to grasp, beyond the specificity and concrete individuality of the works, those structural homologies that are worth restoring the fundamental features of an artistic era or a broad cultural phase. This also serves to cut off all the false questions that have arisen regarding the relationship between the literary subject and filmmaking. The fact that the action, the dramaturgical layer of the film can be, or rather generally be, elaborated at a table in literary form or even drawn from a story or a novel, it does not concern the structure of the film as such, but its empirical prehistory: in the completed work the action must appear anyway, and must be understood as identified, detected and organized within the current reality that the camera is facing. In this sense, it is extremely important to reiterate that the film has no literary processing stages, but, as is extremely clear in Pudovkin's thought, it takes place through the process of growing the shape and constructive organization of its specific natural material, in which the ‛intermediate stages' (subject, treatment, screenplay) are important only and exclusively as moments of this same process,
Reaffirming these points, which are decisive for a correct and pertinent foundation of film analysis, theory and historiography, is still necessary in the face of the current situation of criticism, even if, as well as the great importance of the research of language tending to articulate film dramaturgy into increasingly complex forms, we do not want to deny the value of a positive contribution to the cinematographic culture of all those theories that have placed themselves in this perspective of research. In fact, once stripped of their reductive and normative character, they helped to illuminate scholars, critics and the public (at least of the specializzati specialized readers') on the characters that film language has come to assume at this level of its forms of organization:C. Metz, and how many others have contributed concretely, beyond the theoretical foundations of their discourse, to the identification of these or those forms of elaboration and intervention on reality historically assumed by the film.
To conclude this part of the speech, dedicated to the determination, albeit schematic, of the theoretical, poetic and forms in which the autonomously expressive character of the film came to affirm itself and through which the film came concretizing its expressive and formative potential. , by accentuating this or that of its fundamental building blocks, it will be appropriate to take a quick look at the dimensions and shapes of the most recent period. We could say then that the so-called 'modern cinema' was characterized by three fundamental trends. The first of these is represented by the development of non-montage formsidentified by Bazin; it would have (but on this, based on a careful reading of the works, it would be doubtful), its antecedents in Stroheim and Murnau, and would be characterized, as we said, by the desire to represent a certain dramatic situation without manipulation respecting its the space-time continuity and the character of 'ambiguity' immanent to reality, without forcing and without explicit reductions of the signed object Samples of this trend would be, as is known Wyler, Welles and Hitchcock and, partially, Renoir and Bresson. Of this theoretical-critical tendency, rather than the precise, rather questionable, correspondence to reality in the works taken as a 'champion', it is worth noting the influence it has exerted on large sectors of contemporary auteur cinema, especially French, and on certain areas of criticism. But the trends that perhaps most characterize contemporary cinema are those that stand under the sign of an accentuation of the value of the photographic quality of the film image or of the accentuation, instead, of the absolute constructive freedom made possible by the editing (at the level of recomposition ‛Arbitrary 'of spaces, times, reality plans). Of course, if these two other trends can be identified as distinct from a theoretical point of view, in the concrete reality of the individual works they are often coexisting, both substantially motivated by the will to react to the standardized models of Hollywood-style 'dramatic' cinema. But the trends that perhaps most characterize contemporary cinema are those that stand under the sign of an accentuation of the value of the photographic quality of the film image or of the accentuation, instead, of the absolute constructive freedom made possible by the editing (at the level of recomposition ‛Arbitrary 'of spaces, times, reality plans). Of course, if these two other trends can be identified as distinct from a theoretical point of view, in the concrete reality of the individual works they are often coexisting, both substantially motivated by the will to react to the standardized models of Hollywood-style 'dramatic' cinema. But the trends that perhaps most characterize contemporary cinema are those that stand under the sign of an accentuation of the value of the photographic quality of the film image or of the accentuation, instead, of the absolute constructive freedom made possible by the editing (at the level of recomposition ‛Arbitrary 'of spaces, times, reality plans). Of course, if these two other trends can be identified as distinct from a theoretical point of view, in the concrete reality of the individual works they are often coexisting, both substantially motivated by the will to react to the standardized models of Hollywood-style 'dramatic' cinema. the absolute constructive freedom made possible by the assembly (at the level of aria arbitrary 'recomposition of spaces, times, plans of reality). Of course, if these two other trends can be identified as distinct from a theoretical point of view, in the concrete reality of the individual works they are often coexisting, both substantially motivated by the will to react to the standardized models of Hollywood-style 'dramatic' cinema. the absolute constructive freedom made possible by the assembly (at the level of aria arbitrary 'recomposition of spaces, times, plans of reality). Of course, if these two other trends can be identified as distinct from a theoretical point of view, in the concrete reality of the individual works they are often coexisting, both substantially motivated by the will to react to the standardized models of Hollywood-style 'dramatic' cinema.
As regards the accentuation of the photographic quality of the film image, it had theoretically its major supporters in S. Kracauer and in Chiarini. The first - which also recovers in this sense a whole series of visualistic-photogenic theories of the 1920s and later - underlines precisely this ability of the film image to give us the immediate sense of physical reality, in its being in progress and in its indeterminate flow but not determinable, beyond any attempt to force it into the suffocating links of dramaturgical, rhythmic or compositional schemes. Chiarini, consistently continuing his defense of the notion of "specific film" against the attack that was brought to this notion, with different motivations, by Aristarchus and other theorists, has come to identify this specificity, through the distinction between film-spectacle and pure film, in the photographic-documentary foundation of the filmic image. With an operation that in some ways is similar to that of Kracauer, Chiarini tends to see the whole history of cinema from this point of view, while trying to avoid any form of regulatory restriction. These theoretical stances are matched, without a doubt, by a trend in this same direction by some of the most significant authors of contemporary cinema and by some movements or schools. It could be said, that is, that there has actually been a reassessment of the notion of photogenicity, a reassessment that, obviously, it has assumed different forms and specifications in direct dependence on the multiplicity of its semantic nuances. Briefly, we can identify first of all, as a specification of this quality of the film image and of the formative attitude to which it gives rise, the accentuation of its photographic-documentary character, from which derives the so-called documentary trend that has its great antecedents in RJ Flaherty, in some works of German neo-objectivism (e.g. those of Jutzi) and in the theoretical work of Grierson.
This trend was imposed after the war with Italian neorealism, particularly with Rossellini's films and, in different forms, with the cinéma-vérité. But the awareness of the fact that the great strength of cinema consists not so much in the manipulation of reality or in the exhibition of a reconstructed reality, as in placing oneself in front of reality as it presents itself in everyday, current experience, to question and extract it the immanent sense, this awareness has not only acted in the works in which this direct, immediate encounter between camera and reality is more evident, but has also been translated into a profound modification of the characters and structure of the so-called ‛psychological 'film . The latter, in the work of the authors most aware and closest to the neorealistic experience (Antonioni, for example), has increasingly moved towards a form that has been called, perhaps improperly, ‛behavioristic '. In it the individual situations, the very interior of the characters are captured, analyzed and revealed by the camera in their external projections, just like "behavior", and in their relationships with the environment, with the situations and with the objects that that behavior is the objective motive. And the consequences that this setting determines in the ways of acting, of the use of the actors, and in the structure of the dialogues are evident, which tend more and more to be configured in terms of verb verbal behavior '. with the situations and objects that are the objective motives of that behavior. And the consequences that this setting determines in the ways of acting, of the use of the actors, and in the structure of the dialogues are evident, which tend more and more to be configured in terms of verb verbal behavior '. with situations and objects which are the objective motives of that behavior. And the consequences that this setting determines in the ways of acting, of the use of the actors, and in the structure of the dialogues are evident, which tend more and more to be configured in terms of verb verbal behavior '.
Hence a profound change also in the dramaturgical structures and in the editing structures, in which the ‛concentrated 'or‛ closed' forms of classical cinema are replaced by more open forms, responding to the internal logic of a film operation tending to scrutinize the reality, at all its levels, to discover its meaning. Hence, again, the insertion of the new film forms in the problem of the so-called aperta open work '; in this regard, however, it must be said that - without denying certain indisputable cultural connections that unify the various forms of contemporary artistic activity, from the novel to painting, to the theater, to the film in fact - it is always necessary that the identification of these connections never prescinds from consideration of specific terms, responding to the peculiar characteristics of the medium, which these "open" forms take on in the film. More particularly, it is necessary to reiterate that this orientation is only to a certain extent determined by the more general contemporary "taste", because it derives, in large part, from the development of what had increasingly come to be clarified as the peculiar character of the filmic expression. In short, we could say that contemporary cinema, in its most significant manifestations, is characterized by a renewed process of awareness and affirmation of its distinctive characteristics, a process which, in the work of an author like Godard, for example, even becomes explicit and substantial. it is necessary to reiterate that this orientation is only to a certain extent determined by the more general contemporary "taste", because it derives, in large part, from the development of what had become increasingly clear as the peculiar character of the filmic expression. In short, we could say that contemporary cinema, in its most significant manifestations, is characterized by a renewed process of awareness and affirmation of its distinctive characteristics, a process which, in the work of an author like Godard, for example, even becomes explicit and substantial. it is necessary to reiterate that this orientation is only to a certain extent determined by the more general contemporary "taste", because it derives, in large part, from the development of what had become increasingly clear as the peculiar character of the filmic expression. In short, we could say that contemporary cinema, in its most significant manifestations, is characterized by a renewed process of awareness and affirmation of its distinctive characteristics, a process which, in the work of an author like Godard, for example, even becomes explicit and substantial.
A trend that characterizes, as we said, contemporary cinema is the breaking of the linearity of the temporal structure, for a wide use of procedures based on the intersection of different times and planes of reality: think of the work of A. Resnaisand 81 / 2 Fellini, to remember only the most famous examples. But even in this case it would be a mistake to see in this only the product of a closer relationship between the structure of the film and the structures of the twentieth-century novel (a relationship that also exists, as is also shown by the motivated interest in the cinema of authors and theorists of the nouveau-roman as A. Robbe-Grillet and M. Butor). Indeed, it cannot be forgotten that procedures of this kind originate in certain aspects of Griffith's work, particularly of Intolerance., and therefore they are the development of a peculiar possibility of the editing that one of the "fathers" of the film as art had already identified; and, secondly, it cannot be ignored that the subjective recomposition of the times and planes of reality takes on a particular and distinct character in the film from that of the romance form, due to the ineliminable 'topical' character that the filmic image possesses and that Balázs and Alain had already identified.
Finally, there is an aspect of contemporary cinema that deserves to be taken into consideration, and it is that represented by the so-called 'political cinema'. Of course, what interests us is not to pose the problem at the level of the explicit content of the film: from this point of view we cannot fail to reiterate that the real content (even political or ideological) of a film is in the attitude that the author assumes of in front of reality and in the concrete form of construction of the image in which that attitude takes shape. On the other hand, it is more interesting to see how the tendency towards a more direct and explicit political use of cinema has entailed, on the part of the most aware authors, Godard in the head, a series of precise choices on a formal level. More exactly, this incidence of political commitment to formal structures, if it had as its first manifestation the refusal of the "show" by the authors of neorealism, then it manifested itself in a trend that we could define, with some margin of imprecision, "Brechtian". In fact, these authors posed the problem of the political function of cinema in terms of modifying what seemed to be the normal relationship between spectator and film image, the relationship of "identification", based in turn on the specific "impression of reality" of the filmic image. It should be remembered that the great authors and theorists of the silent film (in particular Balázs and Eisenstein) founded the possibility of ideological communication of the film. By these authors, however, the
We must still remember, going back to what we said at the beginning, the national context of the controversies on the art of the film. Some like the aforementioned Brandi, edE. Cecchi, denied the artistic nature of the film by confusing the film image with the frame. Cecchi said that drawing was different from photography, in that in drawing the artist could correct himself, repenting, and in any case traced lines that came from his imagination or from his spirit of observation, while photography is automatic and reproduces what he has in front. In support of this thesis he cited Croce, according to him contrary to the artistic nature of the film; but Croce, in a letter sent to the director of 'Black and White ", said he did not remember what was attributed to him. Croce in this letter reaffirmed the artistic nature of the film based on its aesthetic principles. The Barbarian in his Film and phonofilmreferring to Croce, he said that the film was art precisely because it had all the most significant aspects in common with art. Gentile, in a preface to one of my volumes on cinema (see Chiarini, 1935), after reiterating the importance of technique, argued that its overcoming leads to forgetting it, so the viewer witnesses the story, as if it were true. Both Gentile and Croce considered the 'narrative' aspect of the film, and not for nothing does Croce talk about the performer, calling him an artist. Even the Barbarian, who supported the thesis of the film actor as creator actor, initially gave importance to the character and, therefore, considered the film from a narrative point of view. However, quell these controversies and claimed that the film was an expression of art, new ones opened up, as we have seen. When the controversy ceases, the film will cease to be an artistic fact.


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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398


The cinematographic items appear from the beginning in the Italian Encyclopedia (see cinema, X, p. 335 ), in which experiments on moving objects and the 'machinery' used to reproduce them in image before the invention of the cinemaof the Lumière brothers. The discussion also focuses on the indispensable objects of the machine c. (projectors, lenses, film, etc.), on the first experiments with color and sound, on the different forms of language (close-up, fading, superimposition, etc.), on industry, on c. educational and on the architecture of the cinema. The most important national cinemas (Italy, United States, France, Germany, Russia, Sweden) are then historically analyzed from their origins until the beginning of the 1930s. App. I (p. 420 ) reports on the progress in the field of image and the sound revolution occurred with the first spoken film, The jazz singer ( 1927)) by A. Crosland. Here are some sub-themes on scientific cinematography and legislation in different countries (Italy, Germany, Czechoslovakia, France, England, Switzerland, United States). App. II ( i, p. 592 ) mention is made of the improvements achieved in the field of cameras, films, lenses. There are also sub-themes on the documentary, on c. didactic and scientific, on the different systems of color cinematography (Technicolor, Agfacolor, Kodachrome, Dufaycolor), on music in c. and updates on the history and aesthetics of the film, on the industry, legislation and architecture of cinemas. App. III ( i , p. 384) on the one hand the new three-dimensional projection systems (Cinerama, Cinemascope, drive-ins) and the publicity regulation of cinematography, with references to censorship, and on the other the historical and aesthetic transformations that have taken place in the cinemas of the most important countries from the post-war period onwards. App. IV ( i , p. 446 ) the lemma changes from cinema to cinematography . The item highlights the progress in the technical field and the first signs of an economic crisis caused by the growing role of television. The App. V ( i , p. 636 ) dedication to c. a considerable space. The cinematography voiceincludes numerous sub-themes: technical innovations, co-production, distribution, restoration, scientific cinematography, documentary, c. underground , thriller, Oscar awards. The films of many countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia are also treated for the first time. Most of the voices dedicated to European and non-European countries include the cinema sub-theme . Some biographies of film actors and directors (eg, G. Garbo, Ch. Chaplin) already appear in the Encyclopedia ; the App. III their numbers increase considerably; App. V the biographies of the most important Italian and foreign filmmakers and interpreters are inserted. *


by Gianni Rondolino

The celebrations for the first centenary of the cinema, which took place in 1995in many European and non-European countries, they reopened the question of the meaning of c. in the modern civilization of the image, of its validity in an area of ​​social communication now dominated by vision in all its forms and articulations. Both on the level of theory, as well as on that of criticism and information, the question has been addressed in various aspects, taking into account both the undoubted impact and the c. it continues to have undifferentiated audiences on the public, conditioning at least in part the various social behaviors, both of its value as a means of investigating reality in comparison with other media, such as television, which have certainly much more incisive and immediate potentialities on the real . Without going into the merits of these discussions,1995, which marks a sort of emblematic date, it is also necessary to keep in mind a non-secondary aspect of the cinematographic enjoyment, no longer limited as it was once only to public entertainment theaters or, for certain films, to festivals and cinema clubs.

Ever since television took on a role of support of the c., In the sense of its widespread diffusion through the programming of films, more and more on all available channels and networks, and since the use of the video recorder has promoted a Equally widespread distribution of videotapes, the film market has reached a different economic and social dimension. Consequently, even the public, no longer identifiable as a normal cinema-goer but as an individual user of films, has lost its peculiar and traditional characteristics to acquire others. So much so that today it is more correct to speak of different audiences, better still of single spectators, who have with c. a personal relationship, made of motivated choices, rather than a single audience.

The consequence of this different attendance of c. on the part of the spectators or, if you wish, of the co-presence of various ways and times in the cinematographic enjoyment, it has been a different articulation of the production, which has been moving in the last decade towards a plurality of proposals. On the one hand, the great spectacular production has intensified, more suited to the big screen, with films that are based precisely on the spectacular nature, often obtained with the so-called special effects or with the use of grandiloquent scenographies and large mass movements. On the other, low-cost films have been made, which appeal to a different audience, both through the circuit of specialized theaters, and through television and videotapes.

But the use of c. through television and videotapes it has also produced new forms, new models, a new way of narrating through images. For example, the use of quotation has spread, that is the use of black and white, alone or in combination with color, or the return to standard formats, to the normal screen. In fact, the undifferentiated consumption of films of today and yesterday - with the consequence of a better knowledge of the history of the world, but above all of a continuous vision of different directorial, interpretive and productive styles, almost a continuumuninterrupted cinema, in which the films seem to add up to each other, effectively mixing spectacular techniques and models - it has created an omnivorous audience, which accepts, indeed sometimes solicits, the mix of styles and techniques, and even quotes , allusions, explicit references. We are faced with a sort of 'zeroing' of historical and cultural differences, of 'flattening' of aesthetic values, but also, consequently, of a willingness to experiment, to widen the fields of competence, to novelties and to time. same to the repetitions.

The film production of the 1990s has largely taken these new forms of consumption into account, and the most significant authors and films are often born in this climate of experimentation, with results that are not always convincing, but certainly indicative of this trend. However, more traditional works and schools remain, which refer to the old canons of c. popular and turn to that part of the public that continues to see in the cinema show the place of pure fun, escape from everyday reality, escape in the daydream.

On a more strictly industrial and commercial level, these innovations have not always coincided with a positive development. There remains a production crisis which has only partially been resolved or is being resolved, and in some cinemas. In others, however, it has worsened, for a series of reasons that do not refer only to the sphere of industry and commerce, but arise from specific historical and political situations. Just think of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the new structure of many Eastern European states. Think of the social changes or economic difficulties that have affected states, small or large, in Africa, Asia, Latin America. Nor should we overlook the fact that, in the face of these difficulties and crises, there has been a revival of c.

This situation of production crisis, which has affected many countries and consequently reduced the panorama of the c. contemporary, however, did not prevent the proliferation of small initiatives, independent realizations, poor products, individual research, thanks also to the cheapness of new technologies, which allow you to make films and videos with few means. Hence a vast film production, often relegated to festivals and alternative circuits, which has its own value and meaning and confirms the vitality of the c., One hundred years after its birth, as a means of expression and knowledge of reality, of entertainment and entertainment, aesthetic research and technical experimentation.

Also for the nineties, as for the previous decade, the United States' film production was imposed on the world market not only for the quantity of the products and the technical and spectacular quality of the same, but also for the validity of certain artistic proposals and the number of authors who have established themselves and have continued their aesthetic and cultural discourse. The diversification of genres and styles, content and techniques has also favored a variety of films that have met the favor of the international audience. Even if the old Hollywood has given way to a different articulation of the production, no longer limited to the canonical places of the Californian studies, but widespread throughout the country with a prevalence of New York and its surroundings, it is certain that the c. the United States has regained a statute of quality, if not homogeneity, which has brought it back to the glories of Hollywood in the golden years. Even traditional genres, although updated in the ways and forms of c. contemporary, they have returned to indicate precise trends, tastes, motifs: from western to passionate drama, from sophisticated comedy to exotic adventure, from detective to science fiction, from the so-called c. civilian and political comedian. Although some mixes, interferences, contaminations, associations still remain, as in the eighties, the genres are again identifiable as such, with their content and formal characteristics. This means the reconquest of production models that had made c. Hollywood, and also the repetition of formulas - dramatic situations, characters, narrative developments, scenic locations etc. - which still seemed to be successful in terms of world competition.

Of the directors who had established themselves during the seventies - R. Altman, B. Rafelson, F. Ford Coppola, G. Lucas, S. Spielberg, M. Cimino, B. De Palma, J. Carpenter, M. Scorsese, J. Ivory, C. Eastwood, W. Allen, M. Brooks and others - and those who established themselves in the following decade - R. Scott, D. Lynch, L. Kasdan, O. Stone, T. Burton, R. Zemeckis, S. Seidelman, J. Jarmush, S. Lee, brothers J. and E. Coen, A. Ferrara, J. McNaughton, J. Jost, J. Sayles, A. Poe and others -, most have continued his career with considerable critical and public success.

On these directors and their works c. American has been able to build a spectacular structure of great impact. And if Lucas remained on the sidelines, renouncing to direct films to deal with production and high technology, and Rafelson, Carpenter, Seidelman, Kasdan, Brooks, Poe seemed less interesting and proactive, there is no doubt that, even during the nineties, the directors mentioned confirmed that they were among the most significant authors of c. contemporary. Think of Altman's great historical-musical fresco Kansas City ( 1996 ), in which minute observation of the facts and environmental reconstruction are combined in an apparently fragmented structure according to the model of The player ( 1992 ;The protagonists ) and Prêt-à-porter ( 1994 ). Think of reading Gothic-fantastic and existential key, with heartbreaking melancholy veins, which Coppola has made in Stoker's novel in Bram Stoker's Dracula ( 1992 ; Bram Stoker's Dracula ). But also think of Spielberg 's Schindler's list ( 1993 ), who, leaving the themes and ways of his sci-fi and adventurous films for the moment, has addressed a tragic topic such as that of the Nazi death camps with a great sense of measure and strong dramatic impact, and then return to the great prehistoric and fantastic show of The last world (1997 ; The Lost World ) and again deal with the WWII drama with Saving Private Ryan ( 1998 ; Save Soldier Ryan ).

As for Cimino, whose The deep hunter ( 1978 ; The hunter ) had marked a fundamental stage in c. American and the subsequent Heaven's gate ( 1980 ; I cancelli del cielo ) had been massacred from production until distorting it (although it probably remains his masterpiece, in the full version), he returned to impose himself on the attention of critics and the public with Sunchaser ( 1996 ; Towards the sun), long journey in search of a purpose to give to one's existence, in which spirit of adventure, historical reminiscences, environmental discoveries, memory of an autochthonous culture, constitute the elements of a fascinating discourse.

De Palma, partly referring to his composite style and to the taste of the quote, partly renewing himself in the themes and ways, in 1993 made a highly dramatic film, Carlito's way , all tense in the representation of an existential crisis, only to return with Mission: impossible ( 1996 ) to his usual correct and vigorous profession, but a little way. For his part, Scorsese, confirming himself as one of the best American directors of the last three decades, after the refined, elegant filmic interpretation of E. Wharton's novel, The age of innocence ( 1993 ; The age of innocence ), took up the motifs and the forms of his c. more personal withCasino ( 1996 ), a historical-social fresco of the corrupt world of gaming in Las Vegas, in which characters and environment seem to merge in a representation that borders on virtuosity at certain moments. Even Eastwood, after a series of western films or slightly recurrent and repetitive action films, has established himself, above all among critics and young audiences, as a director with a strong personality, as seen, for example, in Unforgiven ( 1992 ; Unforgiven ), A perfect world ( 1993 ; A perfect world ), absolute power ( 1996 ; absolute power). Ivory and Allen, on the other hand, seemed a little closed in their world, even if some of their films of the nineties showed an undoubted strength of style: think of Ivory's The remains of the day ( 1993 ; What remains of the day ) , from the novel by K. Ishiguro, and Mighty Aphrodite ( 1995 ; The goddess of love ) by Allen, which was followed by Everyone says I love you ( 1996 ; Everyone says I love you ) and Deconstructing Harry ( 1997 ; Harry in pieces ).

If Scott, after the fascinating double female portrait of Thelma & Louise ( 1991 ), in which action and contestation, spirit of adventure and existential uncertainty give life to a representation of great spectacular fluency, has remained a little on the margins of the new c. American, Lynch, on the other hand, after the television serial Twin Peaks and the resulting film, Twin Peaks: fire walks with me ( 1992 ; Fire walks with me ), works a bit in a manner but, as always in Lynch, rather disturbing, he returned with Lost highway ( 1996 ; Lost roads) to the themes and ways of his c. stylistically complex, problematic, disturbing and provocative, with remarkable results. For his part, Stone, a prolific and discontinuous director, achieved great public and critical success with Natural born killers ( 1994 ; Assassini nati ) who, based on a subject by Q. Tarantino (see below), dealt with strong incisiveness the theme of free violence in contemporary society.

On the side of a c. fantastic, sometimes phantasmagoric, or imbued with fabulous elements, open to the suggestions of dreams, new technologies and special effects, both Burton and Zemeckis have moved: the first with an unconventional invoice film, in which the taste for the show is combines with irony, from Batman ( 1989 ) and Edward Scissorhands ( 1990 ; Edward Scissorhands ) to Batman returns ( 1992 ; Batman - The return ) and Mars attacks! ( 1996 ); the second with some works of great spectacular suggestion, from the Back to the future series( Back to the future ), whose first episode is from 1985 , to the amusing Who framed Roger Rabbit ( 1988 ; Chi frastrato Roger Rabbit ), to the comedian-moving Forrest Gump ( 1994 ), up to Contact ( 1997 ).

But it is perhaps on the contribution of more independent directors, a little outside the big commercial circuits, that c. American of the nineties has built a good part of his new patrimony of ideas and proposals: directors sometimes coming from the c. underground , other times from documentary films or from peripheral areas. A c., Theirs, which does not renounce the needs of popular entertainment, but often enters more personal, autobiographical elements into it, that is, it tries new ways by addressing more selected audiences.

Think of an author like Jarmush, certainly the best known among the directors of the so-called New Wave of New York. After his first films of the eighties - among which Down by law ( 1986 ; Daunbailò ) stands out , if only for the international success he met with the young audience - he has signed at least a couple of works of great expressive intensity, united a subtle caustic spirit and a melancholy humor, such as Mystery train ( 1989 ) and Dead man ( 1995 ). Think also of Lee, debutant in the mid-eighties with She's gotta have it ( 1986 ;Lola darling ), director with a strong social impact, careful to document the life of blacks in America in unusual ways and forms, mixing provocation and comedy, political discourse and taste of the paradox: e.g. in Do the right thing ( in 1989 ; It is' the right thing ), in Jungle Fever ( 1991 ), in Crooklyn ( 1994 ), in Girl 6 ( 1996 ; a Model 6. Sex Online ), in He Got Game ( 1998 ) not to mention the biographical film Malcom X ( 1992 ), more explicitly political.

Also the contribution of other directors such as the brothers Coen, Ferrara, McNaughton, Jost, Sayles, or the younger S. Soderbergh, W. Wang, G. Araki, R. Rodriguez, L. Clarks, K. Smith, H. Hartley and especially the aforementioned Tarantino, was instrumental in creating the new image of c. American: young, dynamic, aggressive, unprejudiced, like the public to whom it is addressed.

At least the Raising Arizona ( 1987 ; Arizona junior ), Barton Fink ( 1991 ), The hudsucker proxy ( 1994 ; Mister Hula Hoop ), Fargo ( 1996 ), The big Lebowski ( 1998 ; The big Lebowski ), which make up a multifaceted and perspective picture of certain aspects of contemporary American mentality. Of Ferrara, the peculiarity of a violent style that gives strength to violent themes and subjects, such as Bad lieutenant ( 1992); Bad Lieutenant ), Snake Eyes ( 1993 , Snake Eyes ), The Funeral ( 1996 ; Brothers ), Blackout ( 1997 ). A style that is also proper to McNaughton, at least in Henry. Portrait of a serial killer ( 1986 ; Henry. Rain of blood ), far more tense and provocative than the subsequent Mad Dog and Glory ( 1993 ; The cop, the boss and the blonde ), which has the tones of comedy; he then directed the thriller Wild things ( 1998; Sex crimes - dangerous games ). Both Jost and Sayles seem to follow their own paths a little on the edge of c. spectacular. For example. the refined works of the former, such as All the Vermeers in New York ( 1990 ; All Vermeers of New York ) or the cruder works of the latter, such as City of Hope ( 1991 ) and Lone Star ( 1996 ; Solitary Star ). As for Soderbergh, his Sex, lies and videotape cannot be ignored ( 1989 ; Sex, lies and videotape), Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, a fun film about two more or less well-matched couples. And at least some films by Araki ( Doom generation , 1995 ), Rodriguez ( Desperado , 1995 ), Clarks ( Kids , 1995 ), Smith ( Clerks, 1994 ; Commessi ) and above all Wang and Hartley deserve a mention . The first, born in Hong Kong but residing in the United States, is the author of Eat a bowl of tea ( 1989 ) and Smoke ( 1994), two 'New York' films, in which careful observation of social behavior and genuine humor create very pleasant environmental situations. The second has produced Trust ( 1990 ), Simple men ( 1992 ; Men simple ), Amateur ( 1994 ) and Henry's Fool ( 1998 ), which seem to melt some style to Godard with an inquiring spirit, light and subtly disturbing.

But the American director who can be considered the very symbol of the new Hollywood of the nineties, and who in some way represented a new fashion, even a school, to which not a few young and old authors have drawn, both directors and screenwriters, it is certainly Tarantino, who, with the 'triptych' Reservoir dogs ( 1992 ; Le iene ), Pulp fiction ( 1994 ), Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, and Jackie Brown ( 1997) created a c. who knows how to cleverly mix violence and adventure, humor and drama, cruel representation of reality and taste of the sneer. A c., His, which fascinates and disturbs, and the show seems to involve the viewer so much that it does not leave room for reflection.

Faced with this new model, directors like Ang Lee ( Sense and sensibility , in 1996 , Sense and Sensibility , The Ice Storm , 1997 , The Ice Storm ), B. Singer ( The usual suspects , 1995 ; The Usual Suspects ), G. Van Sant ( Drugstore Cow Boy , 1989 ; My own private Idaho , 1991 , Belli e damati ); To die for , 1995 , To die for ; Good Will Hunting , 1998 ,Will Hunting - Rebel genius ), K. Bigelow ( Point Break, 1991 ; Strange days , 1995 ) are likely to remain marginalized, despite the fact that their films confirm, in the variety of proposals and styles, the fertility of a film that continues to dominate the global market. As confirmed by the isolated cases of Evita ( 1996 ) by A. Parker, of The people vs. Larry Flynt ( 1996 ; Larry Flynt ) by M. Forman, by Cold comfort farm ( 1996 ) by J. Schlesinger, by Looking for Richard ( 1996 ; Riccardoiii - A man a king ) by Al Pacino, which marks the debut as director of the American actor. All examples of a production that has managed to maintain a solid relationship with the public without renouncing the reasons of art and culture.

In front of the massive presence of c. American in the international panorama, the situation of European cinemas is somewhat critical, although some of them - in particular French, English and, partially, Italian - have shown signs of stability or recovery. However, it should be underlined that the US production, often based, as we have seen, on the big shows with the more or less explicit contribution of the new technologies, has somehow oriented the production of the other countries, not only European ones, towards different spectacular models, certainly less grandiose and grandiloquent, but, sometimes, deeper and more involving. In the sense that, outside the boundaries of c. of high consumption, fashionable, aimed in particular at new youth audiences, somewhat approved in most countries, continues to exist, indeed to develop, a c. more attentive to daily life, to everyday problems, to the concrete situation of men and women, often young, grappling with the problems of existence: a c. that we can define more realistic, even more political, as more attentive to the phenomenal reality and the historical moment; even less metaphorical for the fact that characters and environments are more explicitly and directly comparable with people and places of contemporary living in different social situations. So there was a certain recovery of the old models born from Italian neorealism, from existence: a c. that we can define more realistic, even more political, as more attentive to the phenomenal reality and the historical moment; even less metaphorical for the fact that characters and environments are more explicitly and directly comparable with people and places of contemporary living in different social situations. So there was a certain recovery of the old models born from Italian neorealism, from existence: a c. that we can define more realistic, even more political, as more attentive to the phenomenal reality and the historical moment; even less metaphorical for the fact that characters and environments are more explicitly and directly comparable with people and places of contemporary living in different social situations. So there was a certain recovery of the old models born from Italian neorealism, fromFrench nouvelle vague , from English free cinema , perhaps adapted and updated on today's reality: models that favor the so-called c. of reality compared to the so-called c. image.

In Italy this movement, which some wanted to define neo-neorealism , had a distinguished representative in G. Amelio, author of Il ladro di bambini ( 1992 ) and Lamerica ( 1994 ), a film of great dramatic and documentary relevance on the situation of Albania in a time of profound economic, social and political crisis, in which the minute observation of reality is combined with a speech with a strong political impact. On a more personal and intimate side, and yet also indebted to the great lesson of R. Rossellini, there is the work of N. Moretti, author in 1993 of Caro diario, a film in three episodes markedly autobiographical, and in 1998 in April , also autobiographical, which continue the path taken by the director since 1977 with Io sono un autarchico . Other directors also move in an area of ​​analysis of reality and expressive research which, despite the different trend lines and the different results achieved, can be defined as realistic or neorealistic . Let's think of S. Soldini ( The serene air of the West , 1990 ; A soul divided in two , 1993 ; The acrobats, 1997 ), to C. Mazzacurati (Another life , 1992 ; The bull , 1994 ; Vesna goes fast , 1996 ), to G. Salvatores ( Mediterranean , 1991 ; South , 1993 ), who however in 1996 also attempted the science fiction genre with Nirvana , to G. Tornatore ( The man of the stars , 1995 ; The legend of the pianist on the ocean , 1998 ), to P. Corsicato ( Libera , 1993 ; I buchi neri , 1995), to MT Giordana ( Pasolini, an Italian crime , 1995 ), to F. Archibugi ( Il grande cocomero , 1993 ; With closed eyes , 1994 ; The tree of pears , 1998 ), to M. Calopresti ( The second time , 1995 ; The word love exists , 1998 ) and W. Labate ( My generation , 1996 ), but also to the personal, complex and multifaceted work of M. Martone, from Death of a Neapolitan mathematician ( 1992 ) to L'amore harassing (1995 ), at the War Theater ( 1998 ) and the strong, aggressive and controversial film by A. Capuano, Pianese Nunzio, 14 years old in May ( 1996 ).

The most recent works by important directors such as M. Antonioni, B. Bertolucci, P. Avati, C. Lizzani are placed in a different context, less indebted to new trends and more tied to the personal poetics of the authors or already consolidated film models. M. Monicelli, P. and V. Taviani, M. Ferreri, F. Rosi, M. Bellocchio, R. Faenza, S. Citti, F. Piavoli and others, differently engaged in a c. research or entertainment, civil commitment or literary system. Also noteworthy are the directors-actors of the new Italian comedy, from C. Verdone ( Honeymoons , 1995 ; Gallo cedrone , 1998 ) to R. Benigni ( La vita è bella , 1997 , winner of three Oscar awards), from M Nichetti (Luna and the other , 1996 ) to A. Benvenuti ( Ivo il tardivo , 1995 ; Return to the Gori home , 1996 ), to L. Pieraccioni ( Il cyclone , 1996 ; Fireworks , 1997 ), who continued on the road of a comedy attentive to changes in customs and the Italian environmental situation of the nineties. Comedy that was instead brought to provocative excess, which overturned its good-natured component in a violent social satire, aggressive and stylistically unpublished, by the couple D. Ciprì and F. Maresco with their iconoclastic The Uncle of Brooklyn ( 1995) and Toto who lived twice ( 1998 ).

With the technical support of Wim Wenders, Antonioni achieved in 1995 at the Beyond the Clouds , an episodic great formal appeal films, where his favorite themes, characters and lonely in an existential crisis, the rarefied environments and evanescent stories, have found the right tones of his most personal films of the sixties and seventies. Bertolucci, after major international productions, has returned to a more modest but certainly more intense and engaging spectacular dimension, in Io ballo da sola ( 1996 ) and The siege ( 1998). Avati continued on the path of c. somewhat personal, outside the usual canons of c. Italian, with films that are not always convincing, but certainly significant, such as L'arcano incantatore ( 1996 ) and Il testimone dello Bridegroom ( 1998 ). Lizzani, for its part, has made an interesting historical film-document, Celluloide ( 1995 ), based on the book of the same name by U. Pirro, which describes the birth of Rome as an open city . Monicelli, with Faremo paradiso ( 1995 ), returned to the generational fresco, but with questionable results. The Taviani brothers are more coherent and stylistically refined withThe elective affinities ( 1996 ), from Goethe's novel of the same name, in which, however, environments and characters seem closed in a calibrated stylistic dimension, a little manner; literary (Pirandello) is also the matrix of You laugh ( 1998 ). As for Ferreri, his latest film, Nitrato d'Argento ( 1996 ), despite its seemingly sloppy workmanship, is at the same time a tribute to the hundred years of c. and a critical reinterpretation of it, a filmic game and the bitter analysis of a society in crisis. Rosi appeared more traditional and with a certain rhetoric in La trgua ( 1997), a cinematographic transcription of the work of P. Levi, however, does not lack moments of intense drama. Where Faenza, in his filmic interpretations of two literary texts such as Sosegue Pereira by A. Tabucchi and Marianna Ucrìa by D. Maraini - respectively in the films of the same name in 1995 and 1996 -, demonstrated a good technical and formal mastery; and Bellocchio, in The Prince of Homburg ( 1997 ) based on the text by H. von Kleist, has been able to combine fidelity to the original with a personal dramatic vision, all kept on the nocturnal and melancholic tones of a representation traversed by lacerating flashes. The latter director subsequently directedThe wet nurse ( 1999 ), film based on a short story by Pirandello.

Finally, in a secluded position but full of aesthetic perspectives, delimited by personal poetics and personal stylistic research, the films of Citti and Piavoli are placed. The first is the author of a delicate fairy tale for adults, I magi stray ( 1996 ), in which the director's habitual style supports a dreamy vision of places and characters of popular tradition; the second directed Voices in time ( 1996 ), which with the precedents The blue planet ( 1982 ) and Nostos, the return ( 1989) composes a sort of trilogy on man and nature between the lyrical and the dramatic, in which things, the landscape, men arrange themselves on the screen as images of time, emblems of a reality that seems to have found its meaning more deep. Directors, works, contents and different styles that testify to a substantial recovery of c. Italian after a long period of crisis, above all of ideas, which marked the eighties, dominated by a production that was sometimes run, without links with reality, repetitive and often unable to establish an active and participatory relationship with the public.

In France the lesson and tradition of the nouvelle vague continued to influence c. of the new generations. On the one hand the directors who had established themselves in the sixties - from C. Chabrol to J.-L. Godard, from J. Rivette to E. Rohmer, from L. Malle to A. Resnais to A. Varda - have remained almost all very active, perhaps updating their style, and obviously the contents of their works, but substantially maintaining the ways and forms of their c., thus creating a sort of supporting structure of the entire film production. On the other, the beginners of the eighties and nineties, despite the diversity of their approaches to reality and film language and the difference in artistic results, have often referred to those characters of the nouvelle vaguewhich can be summarized in a great formal freedom, in a speech most of the time autobiographical, in a countertrend with respect to the traditional show. If the economic and commercial situation of the c. French - and more generally than Europe and beyond - was affected by the strong competition from c. American, consequently reducing the number of films produced, it should be emphasized that, unlike other countries (think of Germany, as well as the former socialist countries), France has been able to react by maintaining its own model of cinema show, even popular and a large audience, which often proved successful.

Of the 'masters' of c. contemporary French, the most restless and unconventional, Godard, continued in his independent research work, making Hélas pour moi in 1993 , a film about love that opens up to the most varied poetic and philosophical suggestions, in 1996 Mozart forever , and planning a history of cinema for 'self-propelled' images, Histoire (s) du cinéma , of which some chapters have been published. In some respects Chabrol remained the most faithful to the poetry of his beginnings: that bourgeois and petty-bourgeois world of his, crossed by conflicts and passions, hatreds and loves, which he was able to grasp and represent with an incisive and veined style of one. subtle cruelty.1988 ; A affair of women ) and La cérémonie ( 1995 ; The dark in the mind ), a sort of diptych on the situation of women in a misogynist society and crossed by deep social and cultural divisions, in which violence manifests itself through sudden explosions of hatred and revenge. Certainly more successful and convincing films than Madame Bovary ( 1991 ), a slightly frayed and bite-free reinterpretation of Flaubert's masterpiece.

As for Rohmer, he continued his path as a careful and curious investigator of the daily life of adolescents and young people in a series of films that do not differ from the model of that 'cinema of the word' of which he was the initiator, with risk of a certain repetition of stories, environments and characters. See Conte de printemps ( 1990 ; Spring tale ), Conte d'hiver ( 1992 ; Winter tale ), Conte d'été ( 1996 ; A boy and three girls ... ), Conte d'automne ( 1998 ; Autumn story), which is partly opposed, for a different political and social approach to contemporary French reality, L'arbre, le maire et la médiathèque ( 1993 ; The tree, the mayor and the media library ). Rivette, for its part, addressed the great historical and biographical theme of Jeanne la Pucelle ( 1994 ; Giovanna d'Arco , part i and ii ) with surprising results, in the successful attempt to reconstruct an environment, a character, a story, while maintaining faithful to the facts and making them current through a 'Rossellinian' style that captures the most genuine aspects of reality. A style that is also present in Haut bas Fragile ( 1995 ; Alto Basso Fragile ), three stories of today's girls, treated with a light and amused touch and with great psychological acumen. Malle faced, with Damage ( 1992 ; The damage ), an erotic and passionate drama of strong dramatic tension, confirming himself as a director of great style, but he also made a fascinating documentary between fiction and reality, Vanya on 42nd street ( 1994 ; Vanja on 42 on the street), in which daily life and theater, rehearsals of actors and staging are mixed in a suggestive show. Resnais returned to the intellectual and stylistic game of many of his previous films with the diptych Smoking / No smoking ( 1994 ), based on an absurd and repetitive comedy by A. Ayckbourn, in which the parts are turned upside down in environmental situations which are also continuously modified. A different stylistic game, inspired by the musical films in vogue in the sixties, the so-called 'musicarelli', characterized the subsequent On connaît la chanson ( 1998 ; Words , words , words). Finally Varda, a year after the death of her husband J. Demy, wanted to dedicate a film to him, Jacquot de Nantes ( 1991 ; Garage Demy ), a tender and affectionate reconstruction of her childhood and adolescence.

Among other French directors, already established, P. Vecchiali, B. Tavernier, A. Cavalier and, in a particular research sector, J. Rouch deserve a mention: their films continue a tradition of seriousness and commitment, which has constituted for decades the cornerstone of film production beyond the Alps. At least a mention of Vecchiali deserve Rosa la Rose, fille publique ( 1986 ; Una donna per tutti ) and Encore-Once more ( 1988 ; Once more-Ancora ), a strong drama of homosexuality. By Tavernier The Appât ( 1995 ; L'esca ), on youth discomfort. Di Cavalier the rigorous and essentialFree me ( 1993 ), which is a courageous appeal against violence and abuse. Lastly, of Rouch, who was the promoter and the most valid representative of the cinéma vérité , the continuous research on the field and the passage from the anthropological interests that characterized his first films to a lighter and more curious observation of reality in particular situations should be noted. as seen also in Madame l'eau ( 1994 ). R. Guédiguian should be considered separately, from Dernier été ( 1980 ) to Marius et Jeannette ( 1997), went on composing, from film to film, a mosaic of Marseilles popular life, drawing in equal measure on c. French of the thirties and to some models of the comedy of costume.

As for the new generations of directors, L. Besson ( Léon , 1994 ; Le cinquième élément , 1997 , The fifth element ), O. Assayas ( L'eau froide , 1994 ; Irma Vep , 1996 ), A. Téchiné ( Les roseaux sauvages , 1994 ; The immature age ), J. Doillon ( Les petit criminel , 1990 ), C. Collard, who died in 1993 ( Les nuits fauves , 1992 ; Wild nights ), M. Kassovitz (La haine , 1995 , Hate ; Assassin (s) , 1997 ) and many others, among which C. Devers, C. Denis, L. Carax, J.-J. Beineix and the veteran R. Depardon ( Le captive du désert , 1990 ), who continues his personal stylistic research.

In Britain and Ireland in the 1990s, c. it has taken on a role of considerable significance, not only because some new directors have also established themselves internationally, but above all because the themes and subjects dealt with are most often linked to the political and social situation, of which contradictions are highlighted and contrasts.

For example. the work of S. Frears, a careful observer of the life of ordinary people ( The snappers , 1993 ; The van , 1996 , Due sulla strada ) or that of M. Winterbotton ( Family , 1993 ; Butterfly Kiss , 1995 ; Jude , 1996 ; Welcome to Sarajevo , 1997 , Welcome to Sarajevo ), even more radical in describing the difficult conditions of the subordinate classes. Or certain films by K. Loach ( Raining stones , 1993 , Raining stones; Ladybird, ladybird , 1994 ), produced before the author was interested in more explicit historical and political arguments ( Land and Freedom , 1995 , Land and Freedom , Carla's Song , 1996 , Carla's Song ), and that reflect a critical view and problematic of reality, representing it with a passionate realism. Realism that we find in P. Cattaneo ( Full monty , 1998 ; Full monty - organized penniless ), in N. Jordan, author of a combative Michael Collins ( 1996) and, in different ways and forms, in M. Leigh , an eclectic but very interesting director ( Naked , 1993 ; Secrets and lies , 1996 , Secrets and lies ). Realism that instead is charged with provocative values, with questionable effects, in D. Boyle's Trainspotting ( 1996 ), which has caused scandal.

Alongside this production that addresses social and political issues there is also a c. more traditional, often of theatrical derivation, which sees in K. Branagh one of the most popular authors, both for his transcriptions from Shakespeare ( Much ado about nothing , 1993 , Much Ado About Nothing ; Hamlet , 1997 ), and for some of his spectacular inroads in other sectors ( Mary Shelley's Frankenstein , 1994 , Mary Shelley's Frankenstein , in the bleak midwinter , 1995 , in the middle of a freezing winter ). But in the context of c. Shakespearean a mention deservesRichard iii ( 1996 ; Riccardo iii ) by R. Loncraine, one of the most remarkable results in this field. Finally, the works of D. Jarman ( Wittgenstein , 1993 ; Blue , 1993 ), and of P. Greenaway ( The baby of Mâcon , 1993 ; The pillow book , 1995 , The Pillow Tales ) are very fascinating .

In the face of the liveliness of c. French, English, partly also Italian, c. German, after the great season of the Junger Deutscher Film , has gradually run out for a number of reasons, both economic and political. Not even the unification of the two Germanies ( 1990 ) has allowed a resumption of film production; indeed it was, at least in part, one of the causes of its decline.

Isolated authors such as W. Schroeter ( Malina , 1991 ) or HJ Syberberg ( Fräulein Else, 1987 ; Ein Traum, was sonst , 1994 ) have continued to work between mixed fortunes; others, such as M. von Trotta or V. Schlöndorf, have lost their original strength and made films of little value; few others, such as E. Reitz, have achieved wide public and critical success with complex and historical films ( Heimat - Eine Chronik in elf Teilen , 1984 , Heimat ; Die zweite Heimat - Chronik einer Jugend , 1992 , Heimat 2. Chronicle of a youth); others finally, such as W. Herzog, have been silent for some time (after the partial failure of Schrei aus Stein , 1991 , Stone Cry ). It remained W. Wenders, international director, author of some of the great film visual appeal and complex formal structure ( In weiter Ferne, so nah! , 1993 , Faraway, so close , Lisbon Story , 1995 ; The End of Violence , 1997 , Invisible crimes ), which however risk falling into the mannerisms of the author.

The situation in other European countries appears basically stationary. In the former socialist countries, such as Poland - in which A. Wajda is still active - and Hungary - in which M. Jancsó has been silent for years - film production seems somewhat marginal both in terms of quantity and quality. In Sweden - after the great season of c. by I. Bergman - the director who stood out internationally is B. August. In Belgium and the Netherlands, apart from a few attempts at renewal, there are no signs of real novelty. Rather, it is worth mentioning the significant and often original works of some European authors, who have established themselves internationally in recent years.

As, for example, the Spanish P. Almodóvar, who also in his most recent films ( La flor de mi secreto , 1995 , The flower of my secret ; Carne trémula , 1997 ) confirms the originality of his style and the strength of the his iconoclastic spirit. Or the Portuguese M. de Oliveira, who continues his speech on the past and the present, the historical memory and the destiny of man, with surprising artistic results ( O convento , 1995 , The mysteries of the convent ; Viagem ao principle do mundo , 1997 , Journey to the beginning of the world). Or the Bosnian E. Kusturica, author of films with a strong formal impact and no less controversial charge such as Underground ( 1995 ). Or the Greek Th. Anghelopulos, whose stylistic rigor is combined with a careful observation of the chronicle and history ( To vlemma tou Odyssea , 1995 , The gaze of Ulysses ; Mia eoniotita ke mia mera , 1998 , Eternity is a day ). To keep quiet from the always interesting work of directors such as the Finnish A. Kaurismäki ( Scènes de la vie de Bohème , 1991 , Vita di bohème ; Kaus pilvet karkaavat ,1997 , Nuvole in viaggio ), the Romanian L. Pintilie ( Un été inoubliable , 1994 ; An unforgettable summer ), the Turkish O. Kavur ( Akrebin yolculugu , 1997 ; The clock tower ), the Americanized Polish R. Polanski ( Death and the Maiden , 1994 ; Death and the Maiden ). But perhaps the biggest news comes from young directors such as Lithuanian Sh. Bartas ( Few of us , 1996, Far from God and men ; The house , 1997 ) or the Danish L. von Trier (Breaking the waves , 1996 ; The waves of destiny ), in which formal research and a spirit of observation are combined, giving rise to films of extraordinary visual impact.

Outside Europe, the cinematographic panorama, which during the seventies and eighties had been enriched with the decisive contribution of the countries of Africa and the Far East, seemed, at the turn of the millennium, to fall back a bit on itself. itself, for a variety of reasons - political, economic, social etc. - which cannot be dealt with here.

In Egypt the most significant figure still remains Y. Chahin, a prolific good-trade director ( al-Maṣīr , 1997 ; Destiny ), while in other Arab countries (such as Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco) the situation is undoubtedly critical, like that of c. of black Africa (Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso etc.), after a period of great vitality: if valuable directors such as I. Oeudraogo ( Kini & Adams , 1997 ) or G. Kaboré ( Buund-Yam , 1997 ) continue to work, others have been silent for some time and the youngest find many difficulties in establishing themselves.

The case of Iran is different, however, in which, despite a difficult political climate, a major film production has developed and a great author such as A. Kiarostami, whose films - from H̠āne-ye dust koǧast? ( 1987 ; Where is my friend's house? ) In Nemā-ye nazdīk ( 1990 ; Close up-Close up ), from Zendegī edāme dārad ( 1992 ; And life goes on ) in Zīr-e darah̠tān-e zaytūn ( 1994 ; Through the olive trees) - simultaneously develop a discourse on c. and on reality, with a linearity of style and a depth of thought of rare effectiveness. Effectiveness that is also found in a pupil of Kiarostami, Mohsen Makhmalbaf ( Rūzī rūzegārī sīnemā , 1992 , Once upon a time there was cinema; Salaam cinema , 1995 ; Gabbeh , 1995 ; Nūn o goldūn, 1996 , Bread and flower ), less rigorous , more eclectic, but very lively in describing certain aspects of today's Iranian society.

In Canada and New Zealand the internationally known directors are still, respectively, D. Cronenberg ( Crash , 1996 ) and J. Campion ( Portrait of a lady , 1996 ; Portrait of a lady ); however, there are signs of novelty that make us hope for a recovery and a development of those cinemas: it would be enough to quote the original work of the Canadian A. Egoyan ( Calendar , 1993 ; Exotica , 1994 ; The sweet hereafter , 1997 , Il dolce tomorrow). In the Far East, c. it is still dominated, qualitatively, by the Chinese production and, in part, by the Japanese one.

Especially in China, during the eighties and nineties, a new generation of directors was formed, whose main exponents are Chen Kaige ( Bian zou bian chang , 1991 , Life hanging by a thread ; Bawang bieji , 1993 , Goodbye my concubine ) and Zhang Yimou ( Ju Dou , 1990 ; Dahong denglong gaogao gua , 1991 , the red Lantern ; Qiu Ju da guangsi , 1992 , the story of Qiu Ju ; Huozhe , 1994 , to Live ;Keep cool , 1997 ): two highly sensitive authors, meticulous descriptors of environments and places in China of yesterday and today, sometimes refined poets, sometimes full-bodied narrators. At their side, but also in contrast to their poetics, young directors have moved, such as the controversial Zhang Yuan ( Dond gong xi gong , 1996 ; Oriental palace, western palace), who try to tackle topical issues and problems. , often colliding with censorship.

Also in Taiwan and Hong Kong (before returning to China in 1997 ) a conspicuous cinematographic production has developed, which alternates spectacular films, of an adventurous or violent genre, with more discreet, intimate films, such as those of the great director Hou Xiaoxian ( Beiqing chengshi , 1989 , Mourning City, Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival; Hsimeng rensheng , 1993 , The puppet master). Also from Taiwan come the films of Edward Yang ( Duli shidai , 1994 , A Confucian confusion), Tsai Ming-Liang ( Aiqing wansui , 1994 , Vive amour ;The hole , 1998 , The hole ), by Ang Lee ( Xiyan , 1993 , The wedding banquet ; Yinshi nan nu , 1994 , Eating drinking man woman ), who then moved to the United States. From Hong Kong, on the other hand, the adventurous and phantasmagoric films of Tsui Hark ( Dao ma dan , 1986 , Peking Opera Blues ; Once upon a time in China: i , 1991 ; ii , 1992 ; iii , 1993 ; iv ,1994 ; Tri-Star , 1996 ), by his pupil J. Woo ( A better tomorrow: i , 1986 ; ii , 1987 ; The killer , 1989 ; Hard boiled , 1992 ; Hard target , 1993 , Without respite ; Broken arrow , 1995 , Name in code: Broken arrow ; Face off , 1997 ), by Wong Kar-wai, avid experimenter and careful observer of the complex reality of his country (Days of being wild , 1991 ; Ashes of time , 1994 ; Chonquin senlin , 1995 , Hong Kong Express ; Duoluo tianshi , 1995 , Lost Angels ; Happy together , 1997 ), but also the works Allen Fong (Fang Yuping), by Ann Hui, by Clara Law.

As for Japan, apart from the work of Akira Kurosawa ( Madadayo , 1993 ; Madadayo - The birthday ), the film production, after the great season of the sixties and seventies, dominated by Nagisa Oshima, has gradually waned, with poor artistic results. Among the old masters or directors already established, a mention deserves Shohei Imamura ( Unagi , 1996 ; L'anguilla) and Kei Kumai ( Sen no Rikyu , 1989 ; Death of a tea master, awarded at the Venice Film Festival); Takeshi Kitano occupies a prominent position among the new directors, who knows how to explore contemporary reality, violent and incomprehensible, with a lucid gaze and a very rigorous style ( Ano natsu, ichiban shizukawa umi , 1991 , Silenzio sul mare; Sonatine , 1993 ; Hana-bi , 1997 ). But interesting are also the films of Sogo Ishii, Takashi Ishii, and other young people who, in part outside the tradition of c. Japanese, they try their own way in the analysis and representation of violence in contemporary reality.


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Technologic innovations

by Mario Calzini

Shooting and film edition

In the field of recovery, some innovations have been perfected in recent years. Certain types of color negative film have reached very high sensitivity without experiencing an excessive increase in graininess, thanks to the introduction of the halide laminar crystal technology. At the same time the negatives of normal sensitivity have gained in definition allowing to bring the most minute details of the image on the screen. The colors have acquired saturation and above all stability over time in order to ensure long life of the original characteristics of the image. Sensitive progress has been made in the field of objectives, both fixed and variable focus. The use of electronic off-line editing has expanded,

Special effects digitally . - The greatest progress has been made in the field of manipulation of the cinematographic image by electronic-digital means. To do this we used the technique called transparent transcription . It allows, through an electronic path including a computer, to reproduce on another negative all the details and colors of an original negative, creating a second perfectly equal to the first. If during the transcription new elements are introduced or the image is modified through the computer, special effects of a new type can be created, so as to introduce a particular new cinematographic genre.

The system is theoretically simple: a scanner explores each frame following many horizontal lines which are in turn divided into segments. Each segment represents the mosaic tile (tile that takes the name of pixel (= picture element ). Using a discrete scale of values ​​( digit), the color and density of each pixel can be represented in numerical form, and are recorded on the disk of an electronic processor. It is then possible, being numbers, to modify them in the computer at will in order to influence, pixel by pixel, the density, the color and the reciprocal position. You can replace them with the numbers of another pixel, intervene, in a word, on the image, reconstructing it to your liking, with only the limits of the operator's imagination. The result of this work, stored on one or more discs, can now be entered in a new frame, recording the computer-generated image on film. Thus, frame by frame, the scene containing the desired effect is constructed.

Of course, the picture is all the more defined the greater the number of tiles. Since the definition of a modern color negative is in the order of 120 lines per linear millimeter, a simple calculation leads us to foresee the need to scan at least 3000 lines, in order not to lose the vertical definition and record about 4000 elements along each line to maintain the horizontal definition of a 35mm cinema frame . You have to work on 3000 × 4000 = 12 . 000 . 000of pixels per frame. Even partially reducing the cards, to take into account the losses that can occur in the cinematographic process, going from negative to final positive, the number of bytes that must be recorded in the unit of time by the scanner and then reported on the film by the recorder is so high that it is unthinkable, with today's computer technology, to work in real time. With current machines, both scanning and registration each take an average of 5 seconds, the time to which the operator needs to be added for image intervention. Assuming that each frame requires an average work of 20 seconds, a scene of one meter ( 25 frames) will require an overall time of the order of tens of minutes: an undoubtedly long time, but used for short sequences.

At least two machines are now in use that allow the creation of special effects digitally: Kodak's Cineon and Quantel Domino , machines that require the use of powerful and fast electronic processors equipped with massive hard disk batteries to store the digital images.

To give an idea of ​​the works that can be carried out with these machines, it should be remembered that they include the replacement of backgrounds with animated forefoot, as was done optically with blue back . Despite the apparent slowness of digital machines, the effect is obtained faster and more safely than optically. The machines allow to eliminate a disturbing element in the original frame or, on the contrary, to introduce in it objects obtained from other frames.

To these effects, television has accustomed us. One may wonder why television preceded cinema in this sector; it only depends on the number of cards required: the scanning of a television picture is done quickly. In this case, we are also dealing with less than 400 . 000 pixels / square, and you can operate in real time. The same operation is more difficult and much slower when dealing with about 12 million pixels / picture, as the cinematographic image requires.

The possibility of creating special effects that were previously unattainable has given rise to a new genre of films with a predominantly sci-fi content, which has met with a large public consensus, especially in the younger audience.

The new cinemas

In the seventies the figure of the classic cinema has gradually changed. The subtraction of spectators by television had so reduced the audience of the large rooms that often the seats occupied were not sufficient to make their management profitable. As the large cinemas no longer have any reason to exist, smaller spaces could find their place in their space, which would have given the operator many advantages: first of all, different films could be shown, attracting audiences of different tastes. The multiplex system(this was the name adopted) it would not have required the use of a greater number of people, having a single atrium, a single control at the entrance; moreover, the use of widely automated projection systems would have made the constant presence of the operator in each cabin unnecessary.

The classic architectural subdivision of the room is normally carried out by maintaining the stalls as the main room, separating the gallery from the stalls with a horizontal septum and dividing the gallery into two smaller rooms, with a partition in the center. If the venue also has a stage (as is often the case for large rooms), this space can also be transformed into one or two overlapping rooms. Of course, the intervention in an existing room requires the architect to use special precautions, because the rules for good vision and safety must be respected, as well as ensuring convenient access to each room. The room-to-room dividers must be acoustically insulating in order to prevent crosstalk between the various neighboring rooms.

The success of multiplexes has led to a further step: the construction of multiplexes. With this term we mean a multiplex equipped with numerous screens (even thirty). Generally built outside the urban perimeter (also to use cheaper soil) and designed specifically for a rational distribution of passages and cabins, the multiplex is not just a cinema complex: it is inserted in a large area that can contain restaurants , cafés, areas for dancing or playing, as well as a large and convenient parking area. Numerous multiplexes are operating in northern European countries and in the United States. Their success reversed the tendency to stay indoors to watch television, bringing people back to the public place. The first Italian multiplex was born in Melzo (Milan), while another important one ( 18screens) was born in Rome by Warner (Warner village) on the road that connects the city with the airport. It has the classic single American type cabin, Italian projectors with semi-automatic loading systems, large screens, amphitheater platforms.

The digital stereo sound for cinema

The success of the compact disc prompted the technicians of the c. to apply the digital system also to soundtracks. Having achieved, still with the analog system, a high degree of quality in stereo, it was necessary that the new digital sound was also stereo.

After some Canadian experiments, a large company, a manufacturer of sensitive materials, studied a film for the optical negative-sound that allowed to engrave and read areolas of the average diameter of 12 μ m, areolas that would have represented in the digital system as many bits. Since the classic soundtrack is wide 2 , 54 mm (= 2540 μ m), also considering a certain space of separation between bits and bits, on each of the transverse line system could be seated 2540 / 15 = 169 bits. To leave some redundancy, the number of bits / line was reduced to 150. Considering that in each mm of the soundtrack can be 1000 / 15 = 66 lines, it has a total of 150 × 66 = 9900 bits / mm column linear. Scrolling the film at standard speed ( 457 , 2 mm / s), 9900 × 457 , 2 = 4 would have passed in a second . 526 . 280 bits. Collected in 16- bit packets ( word ) , the sampling could be equal to 4 . 526 . 280 /16 = 283 . 892 words per second. Considering again a division into 5 sound channels, each digital channel was sampled at 283 . 892 / 5 = 56 . 578 samples per second, much more frequently than in the compact disc, where sampling reaches the frequency of 41 . 100 samples / second. This system was therefore able to have 5 channels of sound, each capable of reproducing 2¹⁶ = 65 . 536 sound levels. I 5channels were assigned one to the center of the screen, two to each of the two sides, the fourth and the fifth to the surround (ambient sound) stereophonic, while the subwoofer channel (special speaker also placed behind the screen and intended for bass reproduction frequencies) was derived from the two surround channels by filtering at 150 ÷ 200 Hz.

The first experiment confirmed the possibility of the film to record a digital sound of higher quality than that of the CD-ROM, but the system had many practical drawbacks: first of all a special film had to be used, from a single producer, but even more serious. it was the fact that, having only the digital column, the film could only be shown in the rooms equipped with the relative equipment. In fact, despite its undoubted merits, the system had little commercial success. The only major film made was Dick Tracy ( 1990 ).

Thus was born a compatible system , that is, that it can be used both in cinemas equipped for digital and in those not yet ready. The digital signals then left the classic position of the analog soundtrack, which remained in place, and found space in the form of packets between one perforation and the other (SRD system, Dolby Spectral Recording Digital ) To reduce the space destined for digital information without having to resort to a special film, it was possible to achieve data compression (in the ratio of about 18 : 1 ) by processing techniques using algorithms that canceled frequencies deemed superfluous or irrelevant on the basis of psychoacoustic studies.

Since competition leads to new solutions, but does not allow, at least at first, the creation of a unified standard, a group of industrialists turned to a second system called DTS ( Digital Theater System ), which is also very valid. It seemed like a step back, a return to the old vitaphone , but it wasn't. The sound was recorded on separate CD-ROM disks, which some signals placed on the edge of the analog optical column (which always remained in place) synchronized perfectly with the film. Only two disks were enough to contain all the sound of a film, even of considerable length.

In 1993 the film Last Action Hero uses the new SDDS ( Sony Dynamic Digital Sound ) sound system with 8 sound channels, instead of 5 , for two further groups of speakers, placed in the middle of the screen on both sides and evidently intended for very large screens, with base of over 20 meters, which are rising in large modern rooms. In the SDDS the digital soundtrack is placed at the two lateral edges of the film ( d in fig. 2 ) on two similar digital tracks, each made up of 6 tracks: 4tracks on each side constitute the stereo channels (respectively left and right), while the remaining 2 are related to the mixed backup of the 4 channels on the opposite edge, together with the various reference signals (signature, board numbers, emulsion numbers , key code etc.), to be used as a reserve, decoding them, only in case of need.

The simultaneous presence of three different systems obliges exhibitors to make substantial investments, but, in order to recover the public that television had eroded, many old rooms, and all new ones, have equipped themselves with at least two of the three systems.

The multiplex (and multiplex) system, with the large screen and digital stereophony, made c. a significant step forward, so much so that the public is returning to the premises where the attendance is increasing day by day. Whether this is a momentary or stable phenomenon will tell us the next few years, when even television will change to bring the viewer back to that hypothesized home screen that will be computer, interactive vision, virtual reality and very high definition.

The restoration of cinematographic works

The chemical-physical restoration

The cinematographic work is unfortunately recorded on an easily perishable material. It is estimated that everything that was filmed in the entire period of c. dumb only 20 % is available for viewing today : all the rest has been irretrievably lost. This is due to the fact that in the early days the authors themselves did not consider their works so important as to have to be transmitted to posterity, while the producers, after the commercial exploitation, destroyed copies and negatives to recover the silver and in some cases (Ch . Pathé) also support.

Nor can it be said that what remains, as indeed what is currently produced, is safe from deterioration: restoration and conservation have the sole purpose of bringing the works until it is possible to use a vehicle that offers a duration in indefinite time, as digital technology is supposed to be.

The difficulty of restoring old films derives above all from the fact that one does not work on a single document, as in the case of a painting, a fresco, a statue, but on an object that has been reproduced in multiple copies and on a support, such as it was said, labile. Furthermore, it should be stressed that the available copies are not all identical, for the interventions made in later periods by the same author, imposed by censorship or commercial reasons.

It is therefore necessary that the first step of a true restoration, especially if of an ancient work, is to collect the maximum of elements (the text of the script, even if it represents only the project and often does not have a precise response with the film then filmed, the writings and criticisms of the time) and, above all, the greatest possible quantity of copies and also of fragments deposited or dispersed among film archives and private individuals.

To establish the year of production it is very useful, if available, the censorship stamp which also reports the original length of the film. Sometimes the progressive number of the scene was reported in ink on the first negative frame of each of them, confirming the order and completeness of the work. Patiently, comparing the copies, fragments and documents found, one can reconstruct the sequence of scenes that is closest to that of the original work. The 'part description notebooks', which are essentially a post-production work, schemes necessary to glue the various positive scenes after printing and possible coloring, as was done at the time of the silent.

The film essentially consists of the support and the emulsion . The latter is the seat of the image, the support is the material on which the emulsion is applied. During the hundred years of the history of the c., For the evolution of the technique, the support has changed at least three times.

The first support was celluloid, a cellulose nitrate with the addition of plasticizers and solvents, which is purified to be made transparent, and finally laminated. The celluloid (invented by the Hyatt brothers in 1869 ) appeared to the pioneers of c. an ideal support, resistant and at the same time flexible, so much so that, despite its drawbacks, it was used until the 1950s. Celluloid, in fact, is an easily flammable and unstable material, as it destroys itself by decomposition, attacked by the nitrous vapors that it releases itself. The decomposition progressively lowers the degree of ignition, so much so that when you get to the pulverization stage, the ignition temperature dropped to just 41° C. The main cause of the disappearance of many works is in fact self-combustion.

Celluloid, in the late fifties, was replaced by cellulose triacetate, self-extinguishing and therefore not dangerous. However, the triacetate has also proved to be attackable, albeit in long times and in particular conditions, by the acetic acid which is freed from the compound. Once the celluloid has disappeared, the films largely use triacetate.

A new support replaces triacetate today, especially for archival materials: polyester (polyethylene terephthalate), absolutely stable, with tear resistance characteristics superior to triacetate, great flexibility and transparency, exceptional dimensional stability.

The emulsion is spread on the support in several layers, the main of which contain the image, be it in color or in black and white. This emulsion consists of refined animal gelatin in which sensitive products, colored filters and antistatic products are dissolved or dispersed. The advances in the field of chemical products introduced in the various layers and the way of applying the latter, preventing their mutual contamination, have made it possible to significantly improve the image quality both in terms of definition and color range, to ensure greater durability and to make the film manufacturing process faster and therefore cheaper.

Depending on their function, filmed documents are divided into several types:

Original negative. It is the material that, passing through the camera, is used to form the various scenes of the film, cut in their useful length and added together; the original negative can be in black and white or in color (today of the monopack type ).

Positive master . Also called lavander (or lavender), it is a low contrast black and white film, obtained by printing from the original negative, from which negative duplicates can also be taken by printing.

Negative duplicate . Also known as a countertype or dupe , it represents the most perfect copy of the original negative. In general, the distribution copies that go to cinemas are printed by the countertype, to protect the original negatives.

Distribution copies . These are the copies that are printed to be distributed in cinemas for commercial screenings. Most of these copies, being used today in automated projection systems, are on a polyester support.

Interpositive . Color film monopack low contrast (such as lavander ), derived from the original color negative, allows, to protect it, to print the color negative duplicates.

Internegative . Also called duplicate negative (in color) it is, as for black and white, a second negative from which to draw the distribution copies; it can be sent abroad for the printing of foreign copies.

Select trichrome. They can be three original negatives, shot with the three strips system or three positives obtained from the original monopack negative , for protection against color instability. Each of the selections contains respectively the red, green and blue information of the image, according to the three-color canons.

The restoration of the original negative

The recovery of a film, of which there is neither a good complete positive master (or an interpositive), nor a good countertype, can be done, after the philological examination, using chemical, physical and photographic means on the available copies. Today it is possible to obtain extraordinary results with IT methods, which however are still slow and expensive.

Manual restoration operations start from an accurate control of the physical state, from a washing, in water or in volatile solvents, sometimes from a manual cleaning frame by frame. It is essential to check and possibly remake or reinforce the joints, which represent the weakest part of an old negative. The irreparably damaged parts are replaced by duplicates taken from other recovered documents. The perforations are repaired by gluing perforated strips on the sides of the film obtained from fragments of film of the same age and type.

Once restored, the original negative, if with flammable support, must be duplicated on a safety support and for this you must first of all make a positive master ( lavander ) from which you can reproduce an unlimited number of negative duplicates, thus saving the film . The printing of the lavander is carried out with machines adapted to the pitch of the perforations, often reduced due to the possible shrinkage of the support.

If the negative shows signs of wear or superficial lines, it is advisable to use the so-called liquid printing to make the lavander . This consists in covering the film with a liquid or immersing it in it. The liquid, having the same refractive index as the emulsion, masks the surface imperfections of the film during printing.

The missing color can be regenerated, albeit always with modest results, either chemically or physically. Chemically, treatments can be studied that regenerate the color that is transforming into its leukobase. By physical means it is possible to try to draw from the negative, in which the contrast of one or more dyes has been substantially lost, of the high contrast selections in order to regenerate at least a part of them. Other times we try with special prints, using controlled glazing ( flachatura ) in particular colors, to recover what has been lost. Unfortunately none of these methods guarantee optimal results, however they allow to improve an otherwise compromised situation.

The restoration of old copies . - In the early days of c. the subsequent stages of development took place on frames of limited capacity: the various scenes were developed one by one and then glued together, in the order indicated in the 'part description notebooks', which contained the progressive number, the length, a brief description and indications for any coloring. In fact, most of the silent films contained scenes tacked, imbibed or subjected to mordant with conventional colors that adapted to the type of scene.

Generating copies with the colors of the time today is not simple nor always possible: using color film, with special filters or glazes, an attempt was made to find the original colors, but this was very difficult, even using various methods. Some restoration laboratories have put the original tools back into use to redo the color changes and imbibitions, so as to recreate the conditions of the time. The skill and patience of some restorers have made it possible to obtain copies of some old films which are certainly very similar, as a sequence of scenes and as coloring, to the originals of the time. This is the case of Cabiria ( 1914), which the National Cinema Museum of Turin returned to us as G. Pastrone had designed it, finding and reinserting the parts that the censorship of the time had eliminated, turning scene by scene and imbibing the film with the systems of the time, reconstructing the captions in the original style. Today there is a tendency to increasingly use computer-based restoration (electronic or digital restoration).

The restoration of the image with the digital system

Having in hand a powerful means of intervention on the cinematographic image, transparent transcription, the same means was applied to the reconstruction of damaged parts of old or new films. With the digital technique it is relatively easy to eliminate some defects that cannot be corrected with the purely optical one, keeping the original definition.

The restoration takes place with the same system used for the creation of special effects: the original or the available copy, after a first check and physical arrangement, are passed to the scanner. On the computer the image is shown, frame by frame, on a new film. In this way it is possible to replace the missing frames taken from other copies or fragments, restore the original format, erase that dust called slack jargon. Some operations are automated with special software programs such as that, for eliminating pinching, which avoids retouching frame by frame by hand. It is possible to mask a cut or a tear that takes a few frames: the edges of the damaged film are put together, so to speak, electronically and a touch-up is carried out at the junction that covers the small parts that may be missing. Given the slowness and high costs of digital cameras, this type of restoration is currently generally extended to short sequences or even just a few frames.

With the electronic restoration it is also possible to recreate missing frames or parts of the frame: this is obtained, if you do not have another copy, by averaging the pixel values ​​of the previous frame and those of the following frame.

For more recent films, and in particular for color films in which one or more colors appear faded due to the natural degradation of the dye, chemically unstable, or due to bad preservation or treatment, it is possible to intervene by increasing the contrast of the single degraded color, practically impossible and in any case unsatisfactory with ordinary chemical or physical means of classical restoration.

Without wishing to say that in the near future the electronic restoration will replace the classic one that uses physical cleaning and photographic and chemical interventions, certainly, when the costs and times of the machines will be reduced, the restoration will use the electronic medium very frequently. also the merit of not intervening, modifying it, on the original document.

The digital restoration of the soundtrack

Likewise, digitally, soundtracks of which old copies have come to us can be restored, with a strong background noise (for subsequent transcriptions) and with noises that have been added due to the presence of joints in bad condition, of wear or scratches on the film.

The original column is transcribed in digital form on a magnetic tape (such as DAT, Digital Audio Tape ) and this is placed on a machine (such as the cine box), which allows you to view the soundtrack diagram corresponding to a limited time interval. You can then, with the help of the machine, pick up a certain length of the soundtrack and transfer it or duplicate it in another position, where the sound has disappeared. Sudden noises due to seams, scratches and signs of wear can be physically erased. It is also possible to eliminate or reduce the background noise, if constant, by taking its modulation from a silent zone and then subtracting the digital values ​​along the whole roller. Since the bytes are much less than needed for building the image, the work is much simpler and faster. In the end a regenerated digital magnetic tape is obtained which can be transcribed to form a new negative-sound.

Conservation of the restored work

The restoration work has its limits: it regenerates or completes what is left of the original negative, but the new negative (or positive), once made and approved, cannot be used, under penalty of the appearance of any new defects. It must be considered untouchable and preserved in the best possible conditions. The usable product is therefore the interpositive (or the internegative) or the positive master ( lavander ) or the dupe , obtained from it. From this the negative duplicates will be produced which will produce the 'restored' copies. Thus we will always have a product of at least second generation and therefore of a quality not equal to the restored one.

Only when the transparent transcription has become faster and less expensive, will we be able to derive from the restored original negative a new negative perfectly equal to the first, so as to provide us with copies as if they were first generation. Better yet, in the future it will be possible to translate the film on a new support that ensures an indefinite duration without loss of quality. The progress that has been made in the field of CD-ROMs and magnetic tapes of the TDF type gives hope that, within a few years, the new indefinite-life support is no longer a dream, but a reality.

Compared to the CD-ROM (which can contain only a few sequences of a cinematographic work on a disc), the DVD ( Digital Versatile Disk ) is able to host an entire film on a single disc. This disc is made up of two layers that allow you to double the capacity: in a first step the laser beam is focused on the first layer which, being transparent, allows a second independent focusing on the innermost layer.


Stereostory. A century of sound reproduction , Rome 1984.

The workshops of the imaginary , Rome 1986.

S. Lambert, J. Sallis, The interactive videodisc and CDs I, Milan 1987.

F. Faraco, TM Lazzari, CA Brands, Electronic publishing and optical memories , Pomezia 1988.

E. Pasculli , The cinema of genius. Storytelling, image, technology , sl 1990.

M. Calzini, Technical history of the film and the disc. Two inventions - one adventure , Bologna 1991.

N. Negroponte, Being digital , New York 1995 (trad. It. Milano 1995 ).


by Giuseppe Santaniello

The legislation on c. it reflects the complexity of the cinematographic phenomenon, which is presented today in an articulated way and with multifaceted structures. It does not only represent a particular form of manifestation of thought, in its culturally relevant profiles and social implications, but also acquires a specific dimension from an industrial point of view in reference to both production and distribution and offering to the public.

It must be considered that cinematography shows a line of continuous evolution especially in more recent periods, so that the themes of the sector's legislation have become more and more numerous. Furthermore, the territorial areas in which the various regulations operate at various levels have expanded, some of which find their source in national legislation and others in regional legislation. A particularly relevant area is constituted by the regulations for the development and strengthening of cinematographic activities, for the establishment of special 'funds' and structures in charge of management.

In such a vast field of rules aimed at governing the multiple moments and the different phases of cinematography, some points of particular importance deserve to be indicated: a ) an important chapter of the publicity discipline of cinematography is that relating to the reports of c. with television. Between the two means there is an interdependence from an expressive and entrepreneurial point of view; it is logical that the structures of the film industry and those of television broadcasting converge, more and more intensely, towards a confluence of interests and a web of relationships; b ) in the cinematographic sector, the production of regional laws is particularly relevant. Already the Presidential Decree of 24 July 1977 nr.616 had recognized to the Regions a possibility of intervention in relation to prose, musical and cinematographic activities. And this regional activity has assumed, from the eighties onwards, an increasing rhythm, so that - as was pointed out exactly by R. Zaccaria ( 1989 ) - three types can be identified: 1 ) a form of intervention characterized by measures of financial content; 2 ) a series of organic measures with structural solutions and with measures of multi-year effectiveness; 3 ) the provision of direct organization of shows and events. This type of intervention is mainly entrusted to local bodies, which make use of specific contributions from the Regions; c) a legislative strand is also found in the criminal area: the criminal provisions in the field of cinematography and theater are contained not only in the penal code (articles 528 - 529 , articles 666 - 668 ), but also in the special legislation (law 21 Apr. 1962 nr. 161 , art. 15 , amended by the. 1st March 1994 nr. 153 , and l. 4 Nov. 1965 nr. 1213 , art. 40 ).

In the broader context of the rules for the protection of copyright, art. 171 ter of the l. Apr 22 1941 nr. 633 , introduced by d. legisl. Nov 16 1994 no. 685 (which repealed Law no. 400 of 20 July 1985 ). In particular, this provision punishes with imprisonment from 3 months to 3 years and with the fine anyone illegally duplicates or reproduces for profit, with any procedure, works intended for the cinema or television circuit.

A far-reaching legislation is contained in Law no. March 1 , 1994 no. 153 . Its qualifying points are the following:

- for the purposes of recognition of Italian nationality, the film is defined as the show made on any type of medium with narrative or documentary content (provided that it is an intellectual work), intended for the public, primarily in the cinema, by the owner of the rights of use. In relation to the admission to the expected benefits, the artistic and technical components of the film work are: Italian director, author of the Italian subject, Italian screenwriter, main interpreters mostly Italian, use of Italian technical industries and installation theaters;

- national feature films are eligible for benefits, provided that, in addition to adequate technical suitability requirements, they also possess sufficient artistic, cultural or spectacular qualities. Without prejudice to freedom of expression, films that vulgarly exploit sexual or commercial speculation themes cannot be admitted to the benefits themselves;

- the art. 12 , in regulating the relationship between television programming and film works, provides that these works are susceptible to exploitation by television broadcasters only after 24 months have elapsed since the first release of the films in cinemas in Italy;

- the rule pursuant to art. 13 introduces important rules relating to concentration operations, establishing that in competition matters the same provisions of the general 'antitrust' law established by Law no. 10 oct. 1990 no. 287 . In particular, the merger operations must be previously communicated to the competition and market authority if, through the merger, a market share is held or controlled, even in only one of the twelve head-zone cities of the film distribution, above 25% of cinema distribution turnover and at the same time the number of cinemas operating there;

- specific rules are aimed at giving a precise defining formula to national associations and film culture circles, indicating the necessary requirements as well as the possibility of using contributions;

- general regulations are outlined for the granting of loans to film companies;

- the public register for cinematography is established, held by SIAE, in which all the film works produced or imported in Italy and intended for programming in cinemas are registered.

The profiles outlined above demonstrate the complexity and breadth of our cinematography legislation. In particular, the regulation of the sector, in its publicity aspects, originated a regulatory and organizational apparatus of considerable size. The particular form of manifestation of thought, inherent in filmic work, the ability of filmic messages to penetrate society fully justify the attention of the legislator, whose work requires constant adaptation to a reality in continuous development.

In this regard, it should be noted that in order to rationalize the organizational structure of the various commissions and committees, established by law, operating in the entertainment sector, the d. legisl. January 8 1998 no. 3 , implementing the delegation envisaged by Law no. March 15 , 1997 no. 59 , dictated the rules for the reorganization of the collegial bodies operating in the Prime Minister (show department). Also with the d. legisl. Nov 18 1997 no. 426 the Experimental Center for Cinematography, already a public body established with Law no. March 24 , 1942nr. 419 , was transformed into a foundation, with the new name of the National Film School, on the assumption that the legal personality of private law allows a better and more rational performance of the body's functions.


S. Santoro , Preliminary considerations around the show , in Broadcasting and Telecommunications Law , 1969 , p. 221.

E. Modica , Reform of cinema and decentralization , in a democratic municipality , 1971 , 4 , p. 67.

Public intervention and freedom of expression in cinema, theater and musical activities , by ISLE (Institute for documentation and legislative studies), Milan 1974.

R. Ferrara, The administration of the show, notes and reflections , in the administrative forum , 1980 , 1 , p. 545.

PV Pinto, The collateral activities of RAI: ​​intervention in the cinematographic sector in Italy , in Italian legislation on cinematography , Milan 1982.

R. Zaccaria , Cinematography, administrative discipline , in Digest. Publicity Disciplines , Turin 1989 , vol. 3rd .

Oscar Awards

The Oscar statuettes were first awarded on May 16 , 1929 at the Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood. Although the first sound film had already been made, The jazz singer by Alan Crosland ( 1927 ; The jazz singer), all the films nominated and awarded during this first edition were silent. The categories were divided as follows: best film, best director for drama, best director for brilliant film, best actor, best actress, best original screenplay, best non-original screenplay, best photography, best scenography, best drawing of the headlines , best dramatic constructions. From the next edition, the directing award was no longer divided into dramatic and brilliant film, but unified. The prize for the best soundtrack was awarded for the first time in 1934 . The one for the best foreign film in 1947 . In editions 1928-29 and 1929-30a single statuette was awarded for the script. The division of the prize between original and non-original screenplay reappeared in the 1930-31 edition . From 1939 the prize was also divided into the category for the best photography: best black and white photography and best color photography. This subdivision remained unchanged until the 1967 edition (with the only exception of 1957, when a single statuette was awarded to Jack Hildyard for The bridge on the river Kwai , 1957 , The bridge over the River Kwai ). Since 1967,then, as the making of black and white films has become increasingly rare, only color films have been awarded. Only in 1994 did Janusz Kaminski get the Oscar for Schindler's List , a work shot mainly in black and white. Even the prize for the best scenography was divided (black and white and color) from 1940 and, as for photography, this separation remained unchanged until 1967 (with the exceptions for the 1957 and 1958 editions in which a single statuette was awarded for the category). The soundtrack category had an eventful existence in the history of the Oscars. The first statuette for music began to be awarded by1934. As early as 1938 the prize for the soundtrack was separated from that for the original soundtrack. From 1941 the Oscar began to be awarded to the best soundtrack for dramatic film and to the best soundtrack for musical film. The following year the denomination 'best soundtrack for dramatic film' underwent a new variation: 'best soundtrack for dramatic or brilliant film'. From 1950 the bright attribute was replaced by comedy , but from 1953this sub-category went back to being called 'soundtrack for dramatic or brilliant film'. The division between best soundtrack for dramatic or brilliant film and best soundtrack for musical film remained unchanged until 1961, with the exception of 1957, when a single prize was awarded. From 1962 to 1984 the separation within the category returned between the original soundtrack and the non-original soundtrack (with the exceptions of the 1970 editions , with the prize split between the original soundtrack and original or adapted songs, and 1980 and 1981 , when a single prize was awarded). From 1985 to1994 a single statuette was again attributed to the soundtrack. In 1995 a new subdivision took place: best soundtrack for drama and best soundtrack for musical or comedy. The following year there was another change (currently unchanged): best soundtrack for drama and best soundtrack for comedy.

In the history of the Oscars, films that have won the most statuettes have been Ben-Hur ( 1959 ) by William Wyler and Titanic ( 1997 ) by James Cameron. There have also been 'illustrious forgotten' by the Oscars. The most sensational cases among the directors are those of Charlie Chaplin, King Vidor, Howard Hawks, Orson Welles, Stanley Kubrick and Martin Scorsese. Among the actors, Cary Grant, Edward G. Robinson (who had only a late recognition of his career), Kirk Douglas, Montgomery Clift, James Mason. Among the actresses, Greta Garbo, Marlene Dietrich and Marilyn Monroe (who did not even have a nomination ). *

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پنجشنبه 24 بهمن 1398


by Mario Verdone , Franco Montini

Born from the need to disseminate news of public interest, both from official and private institutions, m. it was already used since the nineteenth century for purposes of information and commercial advertising. This kind of disclosure, originally characterized by simple typographic signs, was gradually associated with images first in black and white and then in color, contextually with the technological progress of the process of color lithography before and up to the photographic reproduction, thus starting to the current form of the m., which emphatically transmits a message through the reproduced image.

The m. film was the first and for a long time the main advertising vehicle of the film. Its characteristics have always been immediacy and recognition. Its function is to attract attention, but, at least until the advent of new promotional tools, such as the flano and the trailer, also to provide the public with a whole series of information. In many cases the m. cinematographic, also assimilated to the type logo function of the film to which it refers, is proposed as it is in different countries, with the only obvious variation of the writings, almost confirming an international culture of realist language. Beyond the style of the different poster designers, the m. cinema differs from other types of advertising for its own distinctive and unmistakable language, which refers to the cinematographic one with the use of rhetorical figures such as metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche. But, probably, the diversity of the m. of cinema also derives from the fact that in this case not a product is sold, the film itself, but an emotion. cinema is usually the producer or more often the distribution company which, reserving the power of definitive approval, in the past entrusted the realization to a poster designer and more recently, or since photography has replaced the drawing, to a graphic designer. Until the seventies the public life of an m. cinema was very short because it accompanied the release of the film, usually preceding the arrival on the market-hall by a couple of weeks. In the period of greatest splendor of the m., When it was the the only means assigned to the promotion, for each title several subjects were created, different from each other, intended for posting in a variety of formats ranging from very large ones (in-folio), to reduced ones (mostly in eighth) type poster. The 'poster' is in fact in theater and cinema m of reduced dimensions, and of m. has retraced the evolution: from a small notice - like the ancient playbill of English theaters - which reported only with alphabetic characters the essential data of the place where the work was presented, the director and the main actors, gradually enriched the decorative apparatus, generally sober, to later become a reduction of the bigger billboards, not sometimes failing to resort to elements taken from photographs or film frames,THE ORIGINS OF THE CINEMA POSTER

by Mario Verdone

In the late nineteenth century Paris the first examples of m can be traced. modern in advertising posters, produced primarily by Jules Chéret and other artists including Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, active for the Folies Bergères, for the Pantomimes lumineuses by Émile Reynaud and for the Moulin Rouge, while Alphonse Mucha created posters of ornate elegance for the work of Sarah Bernhardt. During the belle époque and during the period of the Art Nouveau, other important names were added to Chéret: Wilette, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Jean-Louis Forain, Leonetto Cappiello and Adolphe Jean-Marie Mouron called Cassandre, who claimed that the m., turning to passers-by in a hurry and beset by myriads of images, they had to arouse surprise, violate sensitivity, with brutality but at the same time with style. The world of cinema found in m. a precious ally, used immediately by the Lumière brothers who, although convinced that the Cinématographe was only scientific curiosity and 'writing of the movement' without too many ambitions and of limited future, in the view L'arroseur arrosé focused the public's attention on the 'found 'comedian and they offered a starting point in the billboard for the screening held in 1895 at the Grand café on Boulevard des Capucines. In the first decades of the 20th century. the m. in addition to Cappiello and Achille Luciano Mauzan (who signed the works of Giovanna d'Arco, 1913, by Nino Oxilia; Italian epic in 1914, by Eduardo Bencivenga; Torquato Tasso, 1914; Margot, 1914 , by Ubaldo Maria Del Colle), on names of great prestige and undisputed value. Giovanni Pastrone's film Cabiria (1914) made use of m. advertising to Luigi Emilio Caldanzano and Leopoldo Metlicovitz. Enrico Guazzoni, director and poster designer, created a lithographic establishment where Aleardo Terzi, Federico Ballester and his son Anselmo, Alfredo Capitani, Luigi Martinati, Marcello Dudovich and Tito Corbella (who was the poster designer of Cajus Julius Caesar, 1914, worked for the cinema) Guazzoni and Assunta Spina, 1915, by Gustavo Serena and Francesca Bertini). I m. by Frate Sole (1918) and Giuliano the Apostate (1919) by Ugo Falena, by The Last Days of Pompeii (1926) by Amleto Palermi and Carmine Gallone were the work of Duilio Cambellotti, while Enrico Prampolini signed Thaïs (1917) by Anton Giulio Bragaglia. Anselmo Ballester drew the sts. of films starring Leda Gys (La Bohème, 1917, and Coiffeur pour dames, 1924, by Palermi; Rondine, 1929, by Eugenio Perego). In Denmark, whose cinematography enjoyed considerable prestige in the silent era, Ludwig Kainer made the m. for the films starring Asta Nielsen and Ernst Deutsch the one for Urban Gad's Komödianten (1912) (also with Nielsen).

In the 1920s, among the poster designers of the Soviet Union there were some of the protagonists of the avant-garde season such as Aleksandr M. Rodčenko, El. Licitzky, Kazimir S. Malevič, the brothers Vladimir and Georgij Sternberg, who moved away from their style to focus on popular expressive forms, simple and clear. Rodčenko and the Sternberg brothers e.g. signed m. for Bronenosec Potëmkin (1925; The battleship Potëmkin) by Sergej M. Ejzenštejn; Malevič signed the m. of the German film Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler (1922; Dr Mabuse) by Fritz Lang. Coinciding with the Jugendstil and then with the expressionist season, Germany had refined masters such as Ludwig Hohlbein, Paul Schenrich, Thomas Theodor Heine, Julius Klinger and E. Deutsch, who also dragged painters such as Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner into this art, Hermann Max Pechstein, Oscar Kokoschka. The various currents, including Expressionism, are well illustrated by Hellmut Rademacher (1965). Otto Arpke and Erich Ludwig Stahl drew the m. Robert Wiene's Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (1920; Dr. Calligari also known as The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari); Paul Schenrich those of Anna Boleyn (1920; Anna Bolena) by Ernst Lubitsch; Boris Bilinskij those of Die freudlose Gasse (1925; The way without joy) by Georg Wilhelm Pabst and Karl Michel those of Faust - Eine deutsche Volkssage (1926; Faust) by Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Calligari also known as The Cabinet of Doctor Caligari) by Robert Wiene; Paul Schenrich those of Anna Boleyn (1920; Anna Bolena) by Ernst Lubitsch; Boris Bilinskij those of Die freudlose Gasse (1925; The way without joy) by Georg Wilhelm Pabst and Karl Michel those of Faust - Eine deutsche Volkssage (1926; Faust) by Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Calligari also known as The Cabinet of Doctor Caligari) by Robert Wiene; Paul Schenrich those of Anna Boleyn (1920; Anna Bolena) by Ernst Lubitsch; Boris Bilinskij those of Die freudlose Gasse (1925; The way without joy) by Georg Wilhelm Pabst and Karl Michel those of Faust - Eine deutsche Volkssage (1926; Faust) by Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau.

Of particular level are the numerous m. Poles that were created by the artists of the Academy of Plastic Arts in Warsaw: they differed from the ornate and aestheticizing style of the m. Italians and French of the period through a concise and symbolic representation of the subject, released from purely advertising information and immediate and accessible recognition. Among the artists, who also collaborated in the post-war period in Italy, we must mention Jan Lenica, Anna Lipinska and Józef Mroszezak.


CL Ragghianti , The contemporary poster , in "sele arte", Sept.-Oct. 1953, 8, pp. 43-49.

Polski Plakat Filmowy. L'affiche polonaise de cinéma , edited by T. Kowalski, Warszawa 1957.

M. Verdone , Rodcenko in the avant-garde , in "Black and white", 1964, 4-5.

H. Rademacher , Das deutsche Plakat. Von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart , Dresden 1965 (trad. It. Milan 1965).

The Italian poster for the centenary of the lithographic poster , Milan 1965.

R. Barilli , Il Liberty , Milan 1966.

Y. Brunhammer , Lo style 1925 , Milan 1966.

Memories graphics. From the historical manifesto to the avant-garde production , Rome, Rome 1967 (catalog).

M. Gallo , The affiche. Miroir de l'histoire, miroir de la vie , Paris 1973.

J. Forneris , Jules Chéret , Nice 1991.

R. Ulmer , Alfons Mucha , Köln 1993.

R. Hollis , Graphic design. A concise history , New York 1994.

Graphic arts in European silent cinema , curated by R. Palmieri, Rome 1995.

The movie poster from the second post-war period

by Franco Montini

There were numerous causes which, in the immediate post-war period, brought about a real revolution in the area of ​​m. film. A first reason was strictly technical: from the end of the 1940s, in fact, we witnessed the definitive transition from lithography to offset printing, or photolithography. In other words, up to a certain period, the m. it was made by hand reproduction with the lithographic pencil, projecting the sketch on a stone plate first and then a zinc one. This type of procedure severely limited the creative possibilities of the authors, forcing them in particular to use a few colors. Subsequently, through photographic reproduction on the plates, all sorts of limitations fell: any brushstroke could be reproduced. I m. they enriched themselves, although they began to tend towards excessive rhetoric.

To determine a further 'genetic mutation' of the m. cinema was the advent of television and mass motorization. For years the iconographic model of m. cinema had been the storyteller's poster: the affix was the only information tool for the public and therefore tended to provide a summary of the events narrated through the description of the mother scenes. Reading this type of m. he needed long and dilated times, made possible by the fact that he moved slowly around the city, preferably on foot. With the advent of television and more generally with the development of the media, the m. it gradually lost the function of providing information on the advertised film. On the other hand, at the same time, the mass motorization made the movements faster, restricting the consumer's visual field. The m. of cinema had to adapt: ​​the posters had to be able to read quickly; rather than telling the film, they were simply deputies to draw attention. Thus the iconographic models changed; the number of subjects proposed by each m. lessened, the attention shifted, more than it happened in the past, on the face of the protagonist or the protagonist on duty. The presence of the star was definitively enhanced. Its function in the structure of the m. it was twofold because the star was both a product and a testimonial. It is a unique case in which the two functions coincide and this element was also another of the reasons that made the m. of cinema different from any other type of advertising communication. The actor on the m.

A new generation of poster artists accompanied these mutations. In Italy, where the m. author was a feature of the film market also recognized by American filmmakers, after the great 'old men' (such as A. Ballester, Capitani and Martinati) who had marked the cinematographic imagination between the two wars, a new group of young people emerged poster designers: Giovanni Mataloni, Augusto Favalli, Ercole Brini, Rinaldo Geleng, Angelo Cesselon, Manfredo Acerbo, Averardo Ciriello, Sandro Symeoni, Enrico De Seta, Nano (pseudonym of Silvano Campeggi), Carlantonio Longi, Enzo and Giuliano Nistri, then Dante Manno, Ermanno Piero Iaia. Brini and Nano in particular were assiduous collaborators of the great American productions that directly entrusted them with the advertising campaigns for highly popular films: from Notorious, whose m. was designed by Brini, in Casablanca, Ben Hur, West side story whose m. they were designed by Nano. While being part of an iconographic tradition now sufficiently codified that, in a period in which cinema still represented great mass entertainment, it was rooted in the furrow of popular illustration, each of the new poster artists was quite recognizable for the style, which implies a precise artistic personality. Cesselon became the leading portrait painter of cinema; in his m. always dominates the first floor of the diva or star on duty, captured with extraordinary verisimilitude, but also with a typically cinematic framing cut. Acer-bo specialized in dramatic cinema: his m. they are lively and inventive, full of action, of environments, of characters outlined with an effective and pictorial style; as also happens in the affixes of two other famous poster artists with a clear pictorial matrix: Brini and Symeoni. De Seta, on the other hand, had to specialize in comedy for his ironic touch that clearly denounces the origin of the caricature.

In the next generation, from the mid-sixties, only one name really emerges: Renato Casaro, extraordinary illustrator of hyper-realistic style, also highly appreciated abroad, often called in Hollywood, particularly for spectacular and action films, and known among the others for m. of For a Fistful of Dollars and of They Called Him Trinity. Since the seventies, however, it has been possible to witness a progressive impoverishment of the m. film, which, especially in the field of genre production, was mostly made with photographic material. In fact, producers and distributors attributed less and less importance to m. as a useful advertising vehicle and, while continuing to commission it, especially by tradition, they intended to reduce construction costs as much as possible. In recent years, in the m. the cinematographic function has definitively ceased to exist, entrusted to other instruments, first of all to the trailer. The m. it has turned into something else: in the brand of the film itself. The design has given way to graphics with sometimes even very brilliant and ingenious solutions: for example, the ghosts that come out of the no-stop sign for Ghostbusters or the Batman sign for the famous saga. This is how the poster's posting strategies have also changed: in the case of an event film, the promotional campaign, entrusted simply to a brand, or an advertisement, can also start well in advance of the release in theaters. The m. it has become a sort of teaser, or a call made to create a waiting atmosphere. But as it happened with the old storyteller's placards, even the brand is more original, innovative, artistically valid, the better it performs the function for which it was designed. In the cinema an m. successful continues to be an effective and indispensable promotional tool.


Seduction, promise and sublimation in the advertising of great films , edited by F. Montini, R. Striano, Rome 1991.

Italy at the cinema: posters from the Salce Collection 1911-1961 , edited by E. Manzato, Venice 1992.

B. Martusciello , The art of cinema posters , in Homage to Audrey Hepburn , Rome 1995 (catalog).

Motionless cinema. Popular cinema posters and poster designers from the 1960s to the 1980s , edited by S. Naitza, Cagliari 1997.

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